What is acetylated monoglyceride (AMG)?
Acetylated monoglycerides (AMG) are nonionic surfactants widely used in baking and other food formulations. Chemically speaking, they are acetate esters of monoglycerides, the properties of which depend on the composition of the monoglycerides and the degree of acetation.
Acetylated monoglycerides are used in various food systems such as:
- Baked products (cakes)
- non-dairy creamer
Similar to other synthetic emulsifiers, the invention of AMG was driven by the food industry's need for functional alternatives to tallow and hydrogenated fats. It is developed through transesterification of edible fats with triacetin in the presence of a catalyst. Alternatively, edible monoglycerides can be directly acetylated with acetic anhydride without using a catalyst.
AMG can be synthesized through a transesterification reaction between edible fat and triacetin in the presence of a catalyst. It can also be prepared by acetylation of monoglycerides and acetic anhydride without a catalyst.
AMG is a nonionic fat-soluble surfactant. The stable α crystal structure of AMG determines its emulsifying properties at higher temperatures. It is also the basis for its use in special fats, ingredients, whippable emulsions or cake mixes.
The emulsifying activity of AMG is based on:
- Retains stability even when heated to 97.7 °C (207 °F) for 1,000 hours
- It can be used as a solvent, lubricant and plasticizer because it is liquid at low temperatures
In addition, AMG has other functions in food:
- Stabilizes lipid components and prevents separation
- Improve food texture and consistency
- Extend product shelf life
- thicken food
- strengthen dough
- Enhance food flavor
- Acts as a coating to retard fruit dehydration
- Provides antioxidant activity
AMG is less polar, with a hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) of 1.5, indicating lower emulsifying ability.
In baked goods (mainly cakes), AMG is often added to the liquid phase or batter.
Its use in whipped cream, fillings and frostings helps stabilize and extend their shelf life. In plant-based fat creams, AMG improves whipping and foaming properties.
When used together with other surfactants, the emulsifying properties of AMG are improved.
AMG is GRAS and is safe for use in or on food if its manufacture and content of non-fat ingredients comply with FDA 21CFR172.828.