什麼是檸檬酸鈣 (E333)?

Calcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid.

Calcium citrate is an over-the-counter (OTC) calcium supplement. Calcium is an essential mineral for healthy teeth and bones. It is also important for blood vessel, muscle and nerve health, and supports hormonal function.

Calcium supplements are usually sold as calcium carbonate or calcium citrate. Calcium citrate is easier to absorb than calcium carbonate. Your body doesn't need stomach acid to absorb calcium citrate, which makes it a better choice for people who take heartburn medication or have digestive issues.

Calcium citrate is available in tablet, powder, and gummy forms. It can be taken on an empty stomach. However, it works best when taken with food.

  • CAS No. 813-94-5
  • EC number 212-391-7
  • E No. E333

Calcium citrate uses

Calcium is an important mineral that supports multiple systems throughout the body. You must maintain adequate calcium levels for your heart, nervous system, and muscles to function properly.

Calcium is probably best known for building strong bones. But beyond bones, possible benefits of calcium supplementation include lowering the risk of cancer, heart disease, preeclampsia and metabolic syndrome. It can also help some people maintain a healthy weight. Research supports some of these uses more than others.

bone health

Because calcium's role in building healthy, strong bones is well known, some studies have focused on whether calcium supplements can prevent age-related loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. Unfortunately, the results of this study are mixed.

For example, one study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to evaluate the association between dietary calcium intake and BMD in older adults. Studies have found that higher dietary calcium intake is associated with greater BMD in the lumbar spine (the vertebrae of the lower spine). The researchers found that this benefit was only seen in women, but not in men.

Another study of calcium intake and bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal people found no effect on bone loss.

cancer

Due to the protective effect of calcium on cells. Overall, however, the findings are mixed.

One study evaluated the effects of calcium and vitamin D supplements on cancer rates in older women. There was no significant reduction in cancer risk after four years compared with placebo.

heart disease

Calcium has the ability to reduce lipid absorption, with mixed results, with some studies showing no effect.

Data from a study on calcium intake and hypertension in obese adults. Among adults, researchers found that those with high blood pressure and obesity had a 10% lower calcium intake.

However, one clinical trial found that calcium supplements increased the risk of heart disease by a significant 15% in a healthy postmenopausal population.

other

In addition to the potential health benefits listed above, some people use calcium to:

  • preeclampsia
  • lose weight
  • metabolic syndrome

lack of calcium

Some people may develop a calcium deficiency when their calcium intake falls below recommended levels over time, they have specific risk factors for lower than normal levels, or there is a special reason why they are unable to digest or absorb calcium.

What causes calcium deficiency?

When you don't get enough calcium from external sources, such as food or supplements, or you don't absorb calcium well, your body uses calcium from your bones to maintain blood levels. Over time, taking calcium from your bones can weaken your bones and increase your risk of fractures.

People most at risk of calcium deficiency are postmenopausal people and those who do not eat dairy products.

How do I know if I am calcium deficient?

Calcium deficiencies may require specific laboratory testing by a healthcare provider to properly identify and diagnose. However, certain symptoms and health conditions may indicate a deficiency. These include:

  • reduced bone strength
  • osteoporosis
  • osteopenia
  • fracture
  • rickets in children
  • adult bone disease

For women over 50, a bone density screening is an excellent way to assess the condition of your bones. If you are unsure whether you are meeting your calcium needs, a nutritionist may be able to assist.

What are the side effects of calcium citrate?

Your healthcare provider may recommend that you take calcium citrate to maintain bone health. However, there may be potential side effects from consuming supplements such as calcium citrate. These side effects can be common or serious.

Common side effects

Common side effects of calcium include:

  • gas
  • abdominal bloating
  • constipate

Most of the time, you can reduce symptoms by taking smaller doses throughout the day or taking the supplement with meals.

serious side effects

Rarely, calcium supplementation can cause more serious conditions, including:

  • heart disease
  • Gastrointestinal diseases
  • kidney stones
  • age-related macular degeneration
  • metabolic syndrome

There is controversy about the benefits of calcium supplements. Some researchers suspect that calcium supplements are not effective in reducing fractures and may cause other problems.

Precaution

If you have a history of kidney disease, kidney stones, cancer, high blood calcium, or parathyroid disease, talk to your healthcare provider before taking calcium citrate supplements.

In addition, calcium supplements may interact with certain medications, including:

  • Dovato, Tivicay (dolutegravir)
  • Synthroid, Levoxyl (levothyroxine)
  • Eskalith, Lithobid (lithium)
  • Quinolone antibiotics, such as Cipro (ciprofloxacin), Factive (gemifloxacin), and Avelox (moxifloxacin)

Be sure to discuss calcium citrate supplements with your health care provider and ask your pharmacist if you are unsure about possible interactions.

Dosage: How much calcium should I take?

When it comes to calcium supplements, determining the exact dosage can be confusing. This is because pure calcium (elemental calcium) is mixed with fillers when the supplement pills are made.

For example, calcium carbonate is composed of 60% carbonate and 40% elemental calcium. Technically speaking, calcium citrate contains only 21% calcium. 10 Read the label to find out how much pure calcium is in each pill.

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for calcium is as follows:

  • 200 mg: birth to 6 months
  • 260 mg: 7 to 12 months
  • 700 mg: 1 to 3 years
  • 1,000 mg: 4 to 8 years
  • 1,300 mg: 9 to 18 years
  • 1,000 mg: Everyone ages 19 to 50; Men 51-70
  • 1,200 mg: Women over 50 and men over 70

What happens if I take too much?

As with any dietary supplement, taking too much calcium may do more harm than good. Therefore, only take supplements after you know you are not getting enough from food and drinks and consult your healthcare provider.

To avoid toxicity, pay attention to the appropriate recommended dosage (as mentioned above) and keep the upper limit in mind. For calcium, the Food and Nutrition Board has established safe upper limits as follows:

  • 0-6 months: 1,000 mg
  • 7-12 months: 1,500 mg
  • 1–8 years: 2,500 mg
  • 9–18 years: 3,000 mg
  • Ages 19–50: 2,500 mg
  • Ages 51 and older: 2,000 mg

If you consume more than this amount or more than your healthcare provider recommends, you may need to seek medical assistance.

How to Store Calcium Citrate

Store calcium in a cool, dry place. Keep it away from direct sunlight. Throw away after one year or as directed on packaging.

Calcium sources and precautions

Calcium is vital for people of all ages. Children and teenagers' bones are still forming and they should be careful to get enough calcium. Sitting down with a healthcare provider to review your eating habits can help determine if you're getting enough.

Calcium is easily available in food. Food sources are optimal because they are best absorbed in the body. However, supplements can also help meet daily needs when you cannot meet your needs through food sources alone.

calcium citrate supplement citric acid

Supplements typically contain 200-300 mg or 500-600 mg when combined with vitamin D. 10 Calcium citrate can be taken at any time of the day on a full or empty stomach.
Calcium absorption is highest at lower doses of calcium. For example, you will absorb about 36% of a 300 mg dose, but only 28% of a 1,000 mg dose.

generalize

Calcium is essential for strong bones, teeth and muscles. Calcium citrate supplements can help you meet your recommended daily intake, especially if you have trouble absorbing calcium. For most people, adequate calcium is obtained through food alone. Some people take calcium citrate to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of cancer and heart disease. However, research on these benefits is mixed.

Review

All comments are moderated before being published