If your skin is itchy and red from time to time, you may have eczema. This skin disease is common in children, but adults can also get it. Eczema is sometimes called atopic dermatitis, and this is the most common form. "Atopic" refers to allergies. People with eczema usually have allergies or asthma, as well as itchy and red skin. There are also several other forms of eczema. Each type of eczema has its own set of symptoms and triggers. All types of eczema also have some common symptoms such as dry, scaly skin , redness , and severe itching.
"Atopic dermatitis" is the most common form of eczema. It usually starts in childhood and usually becomes milder or disappears in adulthood. Atopic dermatitis is part of what doctors call the "allergy triad". The other two diseases in the "Sanhe" are asthma and hay fever. Many people with atopic dermatitis have these three conditions at the same time.
Symptoms of atopic dermatitis
- The rash usually appears on the crease of the elbow or knee
- The skin in the area where the rash appears may become lighter or darker, or thicker
- If you scratch them, small bumps may appear and leak fluid
- Babies often have rashes on the scalp and cheeks
- If you scratch it, your skin will be infected
Causes of atopic dermatitis
Atopic dermatitis occurs when your skin's natural barrier to certain objects weakens. This means that your skin cannot protect you from irritants and allergens. Atopic dermatitis may be caused by a combination of many factors, such as:
- Dry skin
- Immune system problems
- Triggers in the environment
If your skin becomes red and inflamed as a result of the substance you come into contact with, you may have contact dermatitis. There are two types: Allergic contact dermatitis is a response of the immune system to irritants such as latex or metal. When chemicals or other substances irritate your skin, it can cause irritant contact dermatitis.
Symptoms of contact dermatitis
- Your skin is itchy, red, burns, and tingling
- Itchy bumps called hives may appear on your skin
- May form liquid-filled blisters, which may ooze and scab
- Over time, the skin may thicken and feel scaly or leathery
Causes of contact dermatitis
Contact dermatitis occurs when you come into contact with substances that irritate the skin or cause allergic reactions. The most common reasons are:
- Poison ivy and other poisonous plants
- Skin care products, including cosmetics
- Soap and perfume
- Tobacco smoke
Sweat herpes (Dyshidrotic eczema)
Sweat eczema can cause small blisters to form on the hands and feet. This is more common in women than men.
Symptoms of sweat herpes
- Liquid-filled blisters form on the fingers, toes, palms and soles of the feet
- These blisters may be itchy or injured
- The skin will scale, crack and peel
Causes of sweat herpes
- Wet hands and feet
- Exposure to substances such as nickel, cobalt or chromium salts
Eczema that only affects the hands is called hand eczema. If you are engaged in hairdressing or cleaning and often use chemicals that irritate your skin, you may get this type of disease.
Symptoms of hand eczema
- Your hands will become red, itchy and dry
- They may form cracks or water
Causes of hand eczema
Hand eczema caused by exposure to chemicals. People who work in jobs that are exposed to irritants are more likely to get this form, such as:
- health care
- Laundry or dry cleaning
Neurodermatitis is similar to atopic dermatitis. It causes thick scaly patches to appear on the skin.
Symptoms of neurodermatitis
- Thick scaly patches are formed on your arms, legs, back of your neck, scalp, soles of your feet, back of your hands, or genitals
- These patches can be itchy, especially when you are relaxed or asleep
- If you scratch the patches, they will bleed and become infected
Causes of neurodermatitis
Neurodermatitis usually starts in people with other types of eczema or psoriasis. Although stress may be a trigger, doctors do not know exactly what caused it.
This type of eczema can form round coin-shaped spots on your skin. The word "nummular" means coin in Latin. Nummular eczema looks very different from other types of eczema and can be very itchy.
Symptoms of Nummular Eczema
- Forms round coin-like spots on your skin
- The spots may be itchy or scaly
Causes of Nummular Eczema
Nummular eczema can be triggered by reactions to insect bites or allergic reactions to metals or chemicals. Dry skin can also cause it. If you have another type of eczema, such as atopic dermatitis, you are more likely to get this form.
Stasis dermatitis occurs when fluid leaks from fragile veins into the skin. This fluid can cause swelling, redness, itching and pain.
Symptoms of smoldering dermatitis
- Your lower legs may be swollen, especially during the day when you are walking
- Your legs may be painful or feel heavy
- You may also have varicose veins, which are thick, rope-like damaged veins on your legs
- Those with varicose veins will be dry and itchy
- You may have open sores on your calves and toes
Causes of smoldering dermatitis
Stagnation dermatitis occurs in people who have blood flow problems in their calves. If the valve that normally pushes blood up through the legs to the heart fails, blood will accumulate in the legs. Your legs will swell and develop varicose veins.
See a doctor for eczema
If the itching and redness you are experiencing does not go away on its own or interferes with your life, see a doctor. A dermatologist can diagnose and treat eczema.
To help your doctor understand your condition, it may be helpful to keep a diary to identify the cause of your eczema. write down:
You should begin to notice the link between your activity and the onset of eczema. Bring this diary to your doctor to help them identify your trigger.Allergy specialists can also conduct patch tests. This test places a small amount of irritating substance on a patch that is placed on the skin. The patch will stay on your skin for 20 to 30 minutes to see if you respond. This test can help your doctor determine which substances cause your eczema, so you can avoid using them.
- What do you eat and drink
- What skin care products, chemicals, soaps, cosmetics and cleansers do you use
- What activities do you do, such as walking in the woods or swimming in a chlorinated pool
- The time you take a bath or shower, and the water temperature
- When you are stressed
Treatment of eczema
Eczema often comes and goes. When it appears, you may need to try different drugs and other treatments to get rid of it.
- Antihistamines such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) can control itching.
- Corticosteroid creams or ointments can reduce itching. For more severe reactions, you can take steroids such as prednisone (Rayos) by mouth to control swelling.
- Calcineurin inhibitors such as tacrolimus (Protopic) and pimecrolimus (Elidel) can reduce the immune response that causes redness and itching of the skin.
- Antibiotics treat skin infections.
- Light therapy exposes your skin to ultraviolet light to heal the rash.
- Applying a cold compress before applying corticosteroid cream can help the medicine get into your skin more easily.
If an allergic reaction causes an eczema attack, the substance that causes eczema should be avoided.
Tips to reduce eczema outbreaks
Here are some ways to prevent the onset of eczema and control symptoms:
- Apply a cold compress to the skin, or use a colloidal oatmeal or baking soda bath to relieve itching.
- Use rich oily creams or ointments every day to moisturize your skin to form a protective barrier against the elements. Apply cream immediately after shower or bath to lock in moisture.
- After bathing, wipe the skin gently with a soft towel. Never rub.
- Avoid scratching. You may cause infection.
- Use fragrance-free cleaners, cleansers, cosmetics and other skin care products.
- Wear gloves and protective clothing when handling chemicals.
- Wear loose clothing made of soft fibers, such as cotton.
You should also avoid anything that is known to trigger eczema .