甘胺酸:好處、副作用與風險
Glycine is one of many amino acids that are beneficial to the body. Glycine is important because it:
  • Stimulates production of the "feel good" hormone serotonin
  • A key component of collagen, a protein that provides structure to bones, skin, muscles and connective tissue, as well as other key proteins
  • Plays a role in nerve signaling and removing toxins from the body
Although the evidence is limited and more research is needed, glycine may also benefit:
  • mood and memory
  • sleep
  • stroke recovery
  • heart disease
  • certain mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia

Unlike some amino acids that must be obtained exclusively through food, the body can produce glycine. It is also available in supplement form.

Disclaimer

This article looks at the potential benefits and risks of glycine supplements, and whether current science supports its health claims. It also provides tips on how to safely choose and use glycine supplements.

Dietary supplements are not regulated in the United States, which means the FDA does not approve a product's safety and effectiveness before it is marketed. If possible, choose supplements that have been tested by a trusted third party.

However, even if supplements are third-party tested, that doesn't mean they are safe for everyone or effective overall. Therefore, it is important to discuss any supplements you plan to take with your healthcare provider and check for any potential interactions with other supplements or medications.

fact

Active ingredient: glycine

Alias: Glycine, ethylene glycol

Molecular formula: C2H5N O2

Molecular weight: 75.07 g/mol

CAS: 56-40-6

(EC) No.: 200-272-2

Glycine Effects and Benefits

Glycine has many benefits as a supporter of growth and overall health. Glycine supplementation is said to prevent and treat disease and improve sleep quality and neurological symptoms.

That being said, glycine use should be individualized and reviewed by a health care professional such as a registered dietitian, pharmacist, or physician. No supplement is intended to treat, cure, or prevent disease. Although generally considered safe, there are few studies on long-term use, so check with your healthcare provider before trying it as a new supplement.

Glycine is an amino acid that serves as a building block of certain proteins, including collagen, a structural protein found in connective tissue. Collagen is found in:

  • skin
  • ligament
  • muscle
  • bone
  • cartilage

Glycine also helps regulate nerve impulses in the central nervous system. This system affects the spinal cord and brain. Glycine also binds to toxins so the body can eliminate them.
You can take glycine supplements in addition to the glycine your body already produces. Most current research focuses on glycine's role in sleep, mood, stroke and heart disease.

Improve mood and memory

Glycine stimulates the production of serotonin, a "feel-good" hormone that helps elevate mood, improve sleep, and enhance memory and thinking skills.

Studies in rodents show that supplementing with glycine can increase serotonin levels. Because of these effects, some people tout glycine supplements as "natural antidepressants." However, more research is needed to determine how long this effect lasts compared to antidepressant medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).

improve sleeping

Some studies show that glycine supplements can improve sleep in people with insomnia. For example, a 2015 Japanese study evaluated the reasons for improved sleep in rats after supplementing with glycine. To assess the effects, the researchers implanted telemetry devices in the animals. This is a tag that records and reports data, such as behaviors such as vocalization and breathing, as well as biological information such as heart rate and oxygen levels. After recovery, the rats were fed glycine or water.

Compared with controls, subjects treated with glycine experienced significantly less wakefulness and increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep during the first 90 minutes. The researchers concluded that glycine promotes sleep because it alters body temperature and circadian rhythms. Once again, scientists conducted this study in animals, so it's uncertain whether the results apply to humans. Research is needed to further explain the physiological effects of glycine and its therapeutic potential to improve sleep quality.

Reduce symptoms of schizophrenia

Researchers studied how glycine could treat schizophrenia, a mental illness that causes delusions, hallucinations and abnormal behavior.
In a 2016 study review, researchers found conflicting evidence about glycine's effects on schizophrenia. For example, while some studies report that taking glycine supplements with antipsychotics reduces the incidence of cognitive side effects, other studies show no difference compared with the placebo group. Additionally, the researchers observed that people needed relatively high doses to see any results.

Reduce the risk of ischemic stroke

Healthcare providers sometimes prescribe glycine to people who have just had an ischemic stroke. An ischemic stroke occurs when an artery in the brain becomes narrowed or blocked, causing restricted blood flow to the brain (ischemia). Evidence supporting the use of glycine for this purpose is mixed.

A 2020 study concluded that glycine improves ischemic stroke by regulating glucose metabolism, inflammatory responses, and the shedding of damaged cells. However, a 2015 population-based study in Japan examined glycine and stroke mortality in 29,079 Japanese adults. According to the investigation, a high-glycine diet can raise men's systolic blood pressure (the higher number in blood pressure readings) to a level that increases the risk of death from stroke. The same was not seen in women.

This latest study contradicts an earlier study suggesting that high amounts of glycine may protect the body and reduce the risk of death from stroke, at least for some people.

Reduce risk of heart disease

Glycine has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects (meaning it prevents or slows cell damage), properties that may reduce the risk of heart disease. Therefore, some researchers have studied the connection between glycine and heart disease.

In a 2015 study in the Journal of the American Heart Association, researchers examined the association between plasma levels of glycine and acute myocardial infarction (heart attack). This population-based study evaluated 4,109 people who underwent selective coronary angiography to diagnose stable angina (obstructive angina). in the coronary arteries).

Studies have found that people with higher plasma glycine levels have a higher risk of heart disease and a lower risk of heart attack.

While this research is promising, research on this topic is still limited.

Improved glutathione synthesis

Glutathione is an antioxidant found in every cell in the body. Produced by the liver, it has many important roles, including regenerating vitamins E and C, helping certain enzymes work, and supporting the immune system. Studies show it can slow cancer progression and reduce cell damage caused by other diseases. One of the amino acids required to produce glutathione is glycine.

The role of glycine supplementation in supporting glutathione synthesis has been extensively studied. Results show that it can increase cellular glutathione levels, especially in people whose diets are relatively low in protein. Additionally, since these levels naturally decline with age, supplementing with glycine has many benefits for the elderly population.

other

In addition to the potential health benefits listed above, some people use glycine to support:

  • Prostatic hyperplasia
  • leg ulcers
  • Liver damage, especially from alcohol
  • Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes
  • Enhance muscle protein quality

What are the side effects of glycine?

Your healthcare provider may recommend that you take glycine to support your sleep or mood or to reduce your risk of heart disease or stroke. However, there may be potential side effects from consuming supplements like glycine.

Common side effects

Glycine supplements are generally considered safe if used as directed. However, there is little research on the long-term safety of glycine supplements.

Most people who take glycine do not experience any side effects, but some people may experience gastrointestinal symptoms such as:

  • upset stomach
  • nausea
  • diarrhea
  • Vomit

Precaution

Because glycine supplements have been found to interact with antipsychotic medications such as clozapine and clozapine, you should talk to your healthcare provider before taking glycine if you are taking these medications. 5 In general, it is best to try any new medicine or supplement by talking to your health care provider before taking these medicines.

Additionally, unless directed by a healthcare provider, the following people should avoid using glycine:

  • children
  • those who are pregnant
  • those who are breastfeeding

It is important to read the ingredient list and nutrition facts of a supplement carefully to understand which ingredients are included and the amount of each ingredient. Additionally, please review this supplement label with your healthcare provider to discuss any potential interactions with foods, other supplements, and medications.

Dosage: How much glycine should I take?

Always check with your healthcare provider before taking supplements to make sure the supplement and dosage are appropriate for your individual needs.

Glycine is available in many different formulations. The most common are oral capsules, with typical doses ranging from 500 milligrams (mg) to 1,000 mg. There are also powder formulas that can be added to shakes or smoothies.

There are currently no guidelines for the proper use of glycine in patients with schizophrenia. Some studies are based on doses of up to 30 grams per day when taking atypical antipsychotics. 10 However, be sure to discuss glycine supplements and dosage with your healthcare provider first.

Topical creams containing glycine and the amino acids L-cysteine ​​and DL-threonine are available by prescription for treating leg ulcers. Depending on the situation, it may be taken once a day, twice a day, or every other day.

What will happen if I take too much glycine?

Supplement-induced glycine toxicity is rare. However, this may occur when sterile water is used for bladder irrigation. In this case, health care providers often administer glycine after prostate or bladder surgery to prevent or expel blood clots.

Signs of glycine toxicity include:

  • visual impairment
  • drowsiness
  • Vomit
  • weakness
  • tingling sensation on skin
  • flushing of skin

Glycine toxicity can be fatal.

How to store glycine

Store glycine supplements and powder in a cool, dry place. Never use supplements that are expired or appear to be damaged or discolored. Check with your healthcare provider before using any supplement for medical reasons.

Sources and precautions of glycine

Glycine is found in many foods. You can also take it in supplement form.

Food sources of glycine

You can find glycine in high-protein foods. Good sources of glycine-rich foods include beans, fish, dairy products, and meat.

Some of the best food sources of glycine include:

  • Red meat: (1.5 to 2 grams per 100-gram serving)
  • Seeds (1.5 to 3.4 g per 100 g)
  • Turkey (1.8g/100g)
  • Chicken (1.75g/100g)
  • Pork (1.7g/100g)
  • Peanuts (1.6g per 100g)
  • Canned salmon (1.4g/100g)
  • Granola (0.8 g/100 g)
  • Quinoa (0.7 g per 100 g)
  • Hard cheese (0.6 g per 100 g)
  • Pasta (0.6 g/100 g)
  • Soybeans (0.5 g per 100 g)
  • Bread (0.5g per 100g)
  • Almonds (0.6 g per 100 g)
  • Eggs (0.5g per 100g)
  • Beans (0.4 g per 100 g)

Glycine supplements

Glycine supplements are available in capsule or powder formulations. Some people prefer capsules because they are easy to take. Others mix the powder into shakes or smoothies.

Supplements are often vegetarian or vegan. However, if you have food allergies, read labels carefully to learn about allergens such as wheat or eggs.

generalize

Glycine is an amino acid produced by the body and is important for building collagen, transmitting nerve impulses, and removing toxins from the body. Some believe that glycine supplements can enhance many of these functions, thereby preventing or treating certain diseases.

So far, the evidence for this is thin. Despite claims to the contrary, there is little evidence that glycine supplements can prevent diabetes, relieve insomnia, heal wounds, treat enlarged prostate, or reduce the risk of death from stroke. They may reduce the risk of side effects from certain schizophrenia medications, but more research is needed.

Glycine supplements are generally considered safe, but may cause diarrhea, nausea, stomach upset, and vomiting. Consult your doctor before using supplements for any medical reason.

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