睡眠窒息症手術

What is sleep apnea?

Sleep apnea is a sleep disruption that can have serious health consequences. It causes your breathing to stop periodically while you sleep. This is related to the relaxation of the throat muscles. When you stop breathing, your body usually wakes up, causing you to lose quality sleep.

Over time, sleep apnea can increase your risk of high blood pressure, metabolic problems, and other health problems, so treatment is important. If non-surgical treatments don't work, you may need surgery.

What are the different procedures?

There are many surgical options for treating sleep apnea, depending on the severity of your sleep apnea and your overall health.

Radiofrequency volume reduction surgery

If you cannot wear a breathing device, such as a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine, your doctor may recommend radiofrequency volume reduction (RFVTR). This procedure uses radiofrequency waves to shrink or remove tissue in the back of the throat, thereby opening the airway.

Keep in mind that this procedure is typically used to treat snoring, but it may also help treat sleep apnea.

Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty

The surgery involves removing excess tissue from the top of the throat and back of the mouth. Like the RFVTR procedure, it is usually only done when you don't have access to a CPAP machine or other device, and is often used as a snoring treatment.

mandibular advancement

This procedure is also called mandibular repositioning. It involves moving your jaw forward to create more space behind your tongue. This opens your airways. A small 2016 study involving 16 participants found that maxillary advancement reduced the severity of sleep apnea by more than 50% in all participants.

Anterior mandibular osteotomy

This process separates your jaw into two parts, allowing your tongue to move forward. This helps open your airway while stabilizing your jaw and mouth. This procedure has shorter recovery times than other procedures, but is generally less effective. Your doctor may also recommend combining this procedure with another type of surgery.

Mental and tongue progress

Genioglossus advancement involves slightly tightening the tendons at the front of the tongue. This prevents your tongue from rolling back and interfering with your breathing. It is usually done in conjunction with one or more other programs.

Midline glossectomy and tongue base reduction

This type of surgery involves removing part of the back of the tongue. This makes your airways wider. According to the American Academy of Otolaryngology, studies show the success rate of this procedure is 60% or higher.

Lingual tonsillectomy

This procedure removes your tonsils and the tonsil tissue near the back of your tongue. Your doctor may recommend this option to help open the lower part of your throat for easier breathing.

Septoplasty and turbinate reduction surgery

The nasal septum is a mixture of bone and cartilage that separates your nostrils. If your nasal septum is curved, it can affect your breathing. Septoplasty involves straightening the nasal septum, which helps straighten the nasal cavity and make it easier to breathe.

The curved bones along the walls of the nasal passages are called turbinates and can sometimes interfere with breathing. Turbinate reduction surgery involves reducing the size of these bones to help open your airways.

hypoglossal nerve stimulator

This procedure involves connecting electrodes to the main nerve that controls the tongue, called the hypoglossal nerve. The electrodes are connected to a device similar to a pacemaker. When you stop breathing during sleep, it stimulates your tongue muscles to prevent them from blocking your airway.

This is a newer treatment option with promising results. However, researchers in a review of the procedure noted that its results were less consistent among people with higher body mass indexes.

hyoid suspension

If your sleep apnea is caused by a blockage near the base of your tongue, your doctor may recommend a procedure called a hyoid suspension. This involves moving the hyoid bone and nearby muscles in the neck to open the airway.

This option is more complex and often less effective than other common sleep apnea surgeries. For example, one small study involving 29 participants found that it only had a 17% success rate.

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