絲胺酸 - 用途、副作用等

Overview

Serine is important in metabolism because it is involved in the biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines. It is a precursor to several amino acids, including glycine and cysteine, as well as tryptophan in bacteria. It is also a precursor to many other metabolites, including sphingolipids and folate, the major donor of one-carbon fragments in biosynthesis.

Serine is an amino acid. It comes in two forms: L-serine and D-serine. L-serine is consumed in the diet and D-serine is produced in the body from L-serine.

The body uses D- and L-serine to make proteins. D-serine also sends chemical signals in the brain. This may help treat schizophrenia and other brain disorders.

People use serine to treat schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, memory and thinking skills, depression, insomnia, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these uses.

Purpose and efficacy

May be valid for

Schizophrenia. Treatment with oral D-serine and standard antipsychotic medications may improve symptoms of schizophrenia. But taking D-serine alone is less effective than standard treatment.

serine deficiency

Serine deficiency is a rare defect in the biosynthesis of the amino acid L-serine. Three diseases have been notified so far:

  • 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency
  • Serine 3-phosphate phosphatase deficiency
  • Phosphoserine aminotransferase deficiency

Defects in these enzymes lead to severe neurological symptoms such as congenital microcephaly and severe psychomotor retardation, in addition to intractable epileptic seizures in patients with 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency. These symptoms respond to varying degrees of treatment with L-serine, sometimes combined with glycine. Response to treatment is variable, and long-term and functional outcomes are unknown. To improve understanding of the epidemiology, genotype/phenotype correlations, and impact of these diseases on patients' quality of life, and to evaluate diagnostic and treatment strategies, a noncommercial international working group established a patient registry. Neurotransmitter Related Disorders Group (iNTD).

In addition to disruption of serine biosynthesis, its transport may also be disrupted. One example is spastic quadriplegia, thin corpus callosum, and progressive microcephaly, a disorder caused by mutations affecting the function of the neutral amino acid transporter A.

side effect

When taken orally: L-serine is usually taken in food. A typical diet provides about 3.5-8 grams per day. Serine may be safe when used as a medicine in higher doses. L-serine at doses of up to 25 grams per day for up to 1 year, or D-serine at doses of 2-4 grams per day for up to 4 weeks, have been used safely. Side effects may include stomach upset and bloating.

Serine may be unsafe when taken at very high doses, such as 25 grams or more of L-serine per day or 8 or more grams of D-serine per day. High doses may cause gastric side effects and an increase in seizures.

Special Precautions and Warnings

When taken orally: L-serine is usually taken in food. A typical diet provides about 3.5-8 grams per day. Serine may be safe when used as a medicine in higher doses. L-serine at doses of up to 25 grams per day for up to 1 year, or D-serine at doses of 2-4 grams per day for up to 4 weeks, have been used safely. Side effects may include stomach upset and bloating.

Serine may be unsafe when taken at very high doses, such as 25 grams or more of L-serine per day or 8 or more grams of D-serine per day. High doses may cause gastric side effects and an increase in seizures.

Pregnancy and Lactation: L-serine is usually consumed in food. But there is not enough reliable information to know whether L- or D-serine can be safely used as medicine during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Stay safe and stick to food portions.

Kidney disease: High doses of D-serine may worsen kidney disease. Stay safe and avoid using.

dose

L-serine is found in many foods. A typical diet provides approximately 3.5-8 grams of L-serine per day. There is not enough reliable information to know the appropriate dosage of L-serine when used as a pharmaceutical. D-serine is most commonly used in adults, taking 2 grams orally daily for up to 16 weeks. Talk to your healthcare provider to find out which form and dosage of serine is best for your specific condition.

Review

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