7種常見的營養缺乏症:了解症狀

1. Calcium deficiency: numbness, tingling in fingers, irregular heartbeat

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), calcium is important for maintaining strong bones and controlling muscle and nerve function. Symptoms of severe low calcium include numbness and tingling in the fingers and abnormal heart rhythm. That is, there are no short-term, obvious symptoms of calcium deficiency.

Most adults need 1,000 milligrams (mg) of calcium per day, but women over 50 and men over 70 need 1,200 mg. At least three servings of milk or yogurt a day may be enough. Cheese is another good source of calcium, but if you don't like dairy, you can find this nutrient in calcium-fortified plant milks or breakfast cereals (check the food's Nutrition Facts label to see if calcium is added), and There are dark green leafy vegetables like kale and broccoli.

kale

2. Vitamin D: Fatigue, bone pain, mood changes, etc.

This vitamin is another vital for bone health and may also protect against certain cancers. Symptoms of vitamin D deficiency may not be obvious—fatigue, bone pain, mood changes, and muscle pain or weakness.

If sustained long-term, vitamin D deficiency can lead to softening of bones. Chronic nutritional deficiencies may also be linked to cancer and autoimmune diseases.

Most adults need 15 micrograms (mcg) of vitamin D daily, and adults over 70 need 20 mcg. Patton recommends drinking three servings of fortified milk or yogurt a day and eating fatty fish, such as salmon or tuna, twice a week because these foods contain vitamin D. Also spend some time outdoors in the sun each day, as this is a great source of nutrients. Ten to 30 minutes of direct sunlight a few times a week should help. But it's difficult to get your vitamin D needs through food and sun exposure alone, so supplements are often the best way to meet daily needs for many people.

sunshine

3. Potassium: muscle weakness, constipation, arrhythmia, etc.

Potassium helps your heart, nerves, and muscles function properly and provides nutrients to cells while removing waste products. Plus, it's a useful nutrient that helps offset sodium's negative effects on blood pressure , and it's important for maintaining healthy blood pressure.

You may develop low potassium levels in the short term due to diarrhea or vomiting; excessive sweating; taking antibiotics, laxatives, or diuretics; drinking too much alcohol; or, according to the Mayo Clinic, due to a chronic illness such as kidney disease. Symptoms of deficiency include muscle weakness, twitching, or spasms; constipation; tingling and numbness; and irregular heartbeats or palpitations.

For natural sources of potassium, try bananas, milk, acorn squash, lentils, kidney beans, and other legumes. Adult men require 3,400 mg per day and women require 2,600 mg per day.

7 Common Nutritional Deficiencies: Know the Symptoms

4. Iron: fatigue, shortness of breath, cold hands and feet, brittle nails, etc.

Iron is necessary for the production of red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body. When iron levels are too low, red blood cells may become deficient, leading to anemia. Some groups at higher risk for iron deficiency include menstruating women, growing individuals (such as children and pregnant women), and people following a vegan or vegetarian diet.

Anemia can give you symptoms including weakness and fatigue, shortness of breath, fast heartbeat, pale skin, headaches, cold hands and feet, sore or swollen tongue, brittle nails, and a desire for strange things like dirt. At first, symptoms may be so mild that you don't notice anything is wrong, but they can become more severe as iron stores are depleted.

To boost your iron levels, Barton recommends eating iron-fortified cereals, beef, oysters, beans (especially lima, navy and kidney beans), lentils and spinach. According to the NIH, adult men and women over 50 need 8 milligrams per day, and adult women under 50 need 18 milligrams per day.

5. Vitamin B12: numbness, fatigue, tongue swelling, etc.

\Vitamin B12 helps the production of red blood cells and DNA, and can also improve neurotransmitter function. Vegetarians and vegans may be at particular risk for vitamin B12 deficiency because plants do not produce this nutrient, while people who have had weight-loss surgery may also be deficient because the surgery makes it difficult for the body to extract the nutrient from food, according to Harvard Health Publishing reports.

Symptoms of severe B12 deficiency include numbness in the legs, hands, or feet; problems with walking and balance; anemia; fatigue; weakness; swollen, inflamed tongue; memory loss and difficulty thinking, according to Harvard University. These symptoms may appear quickly or gradually, and because they are so varied, you may not notice them for a while.

\Adults need 2.4 micrograms of B12 per day. It is most commonly found in animal products, and fish, chicken, milk, and yogurt are recommended to increase B12 levels. If you are vegetarian, it is recommended to choose foods rich in B12, such as plant-based milks and breakfast cereals. Vitamin B12 is found in most multivitamins, but if you are at risk for a vitamin B12 deficiency, you can take a supplement specifically containing vitamin B12.

7 Common Nutritional Deficiencies: Know the Symptoms

6. Folic acid: fatigue, diarrhea, smooth tongue, etc.

Folic acid, or folic acid, is a B-complex vitamin that is especially important for women of childbearing age, which is why prenatal vitamins often contain high doses. Folic acid supports healthy growth and function and may reduce the risk of birth defects, especially those involving the neural tube (brain and spine). Folic acid deficiency can reduce the total number of cells and large red blood cells and lead to neural tube defects in unborn babies.

Symptoms of folate deficiency include fatigue, irritability, diarrhea, poor growth, and a smooth, tender tongue.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), women who may be pregnant should make sure they get 400 micrograms of folic acid per day in addition to eating foods that contain folic acid. Folic acid is best absorbed by the body in supplement form, with 85% absorbed from supplements and 50% from food.

To get folate from foods, choose fortified cereals, legumes, peanuts, sunflower seeds, whole grains, eggs, and dark green leafy vegetables.

7 Common Nutritional Deficiencies: Know the Symptoms

7. Magnesium: loss of appetite, nausea, fatigue, etc.

Magnesium helps support bone health and aids in energy production, and adults need 310 to 420 mg, depending on gender and age. Although magnesium deficiency is fairly rare in healthy people, certain medications (including some antibiotics and diuretics) and health conditions (such as type 2 diabetes and Crohn's disease) may limit the absorption of magnesium or increase the removal of this nutrient from the body. of loss.

Magnesium deficiency can cause loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, fatigue and weakness. In more severe cases, it may also cause numbness and tingling, muscle spasms or contractions, seizures, irregular heartbeats, personality changes, or coronary artery spasms.

To help your levels return to normal, eat more magnesium-rich foods such as almonds, cashews, peanuts, spinach, black beans and edamame.

7 Common Nutritional Deficiencies: Know the Symptoms

From nutritional deficiencies to healthy eating

If you suspect you have a nutritional deficiency, talk to your doctor. A blood test can help determine whether you have nutritional deficiencies. If this is you, your doctor can refer you to a registered dietitian or recommend supplements.

The best way to avoid or correct nutritional deficiencies is to ensure you eat a balanced, nutrient-dense diet. Diet is encouraged first, but if you are at increased risk for nutrient deficiencies, you may benefit from taking a multivitamin.

People at risk include the elderly, pregnant women, and people on restrictive diets (such as vegans and vegetarians) or on restrictive diets lacking fruits and vegetables (the typical standard American diet).

7 Common Nutritional Deficiencies: Know the Symptoms

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