What is the use of CBD oil?
The exact mechanism of action of CBD is unclear. Unlike THC, CBD has a relatively low affinity for cannabinoid receptors in the brain. These are the molecules that THC binds to trigger its mental effects. Conversely, it is thought that CBD affects other receptors, including opioid receptors that regulate pain and glycine receptors that are involved in regulating the "feel-good" hormone and neurotransmitter serotonin.
Proponents claim that CBD oil can treat a variety of health problems, including:
- Chronic pain
- Drug use and withdrawal
- Muscle cramps
- Parkinson's Disease
As CBD becomes more and more popular, research on it is also increasing, but currently there are few clinical studies on the effects of CBD oil. Therefore, some of these claims are better supported by research than others.
A research review published in the journal Neurotherapeutics in 2015 showed that CBD has shown promise in the treatment of anxiety. 1
According to the researchers, CBD has shown effective anti-anxiety (anxiety relief) effects in animal studies, although the results are counter-intuitive.
Part of this response can be explained by the way CBD works in the brain. At low doses, CBD can act as an agonist at several receptor sites, which means that it acts like surrounding molecules that normally bind to receptors, enhancing signal transduction at these receptor sites. However, at higher doses, too much activity at the receptor site can cause the opposite effect, thereby negating the beneficial effects of CBD.
Among the few human trials evaluating the anti-anxiety effects of CBD, one was published in the Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry in 2019. 2 In this study, 57 men took CBD oil or a placebo before public speaking. Use physiological measurements (such as blood pressure, heart rate, etc.) and a relatively reliable emotional state test (called the Visual Analog Mood Scale (VAMS)) to assess anxiety.
According to the researchers, men who took 300 mg of CBD showed less anxiety than men who took a placebo. Interestingly, those who provide 100 mg or 600 mg of CBD oil do not.
A review of research published in Drug Abuse in 2015 indicated that CBD oil may benefit drug addicts.
In an analysis of 14 published studies (9 involving animals and 5 involving humans), scientists at the University of Montreal concluded that CBD showed promise in the treatment of opioid, cocaine, or psychostimulant addicts.
However, the effect of CBD on each type of addiction is often very different. For example, for opioid addiction, in the absence of THC, CBD has little effect in reducing withdrawal symptoms. In contrast, CBD itself seems to be effective in reducing drug use by cocaine, methamphetamine, and other psychostimulant users.
It has also been suggested that CBD may help treat cannabis and nicotine addiction. Needs further research.
Medical marijuana is often used for people suffering from intractable (drug-resistant) pain, including people with advanced cancer. There is some evidence that CBD can help realize this benefit.
According to a study published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine in 2012, during oral CBD and spinal injection of CBD, rats were injected with inflammatory chemicals in their hind feet, resulting in less inflammation and neuropathic pain. There is a lack of human studies evaluating the use of CBD to treat chronic pain. Those that do exist almost always include THC, which makes it difficult to separate the different effects of CBD.
A 2017 study showed that CBD oil can reduce the risk of heart disease by reducing high blood pressure (hypertension) in some people. In this study, nine healthy men took 600 mg of CBD or the same dose of placebo. According to the researchers, people treated with CBD have lower blood pressure before and after exposure to stress stimuli, including exercise or extreme cold.
In addition, stroke volume (the amount of blood remaining after the heartbeat) is significantly reduced, which means that the heart pumps blood more efficiently.
The results of the study indicate that CBD oil may be a suitable supplemental therapy for people with high blood pressure due to stress and anxiety. However, there is no evidence that CBD oil alone can treat hypertension or prevent hypertension in high-risk groups. Although stress is known to complicate high blood pressure, it does not cause high blood pressure.
In June 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pidiolex, a CBD oral solution for the treatment of certain rare forms of epilepsy in children under 2 years of age-Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. 6 Both are very rare genetic diseases that cause lifelong catastrophic seizures that begin in the first year of life.
In addition to these two diseases, the effectiveness of CBD in the treatment of seizures is uncertain. Even with Epidiolex, it is uncertain whether the antiepileptic effect can be attributed to CBD or some other factors.
There is some evidence that CBD interacts with epilepsy drugs such as Onfi (clobazam) and increases their concentration in the blood. Needs further research.
Possible side effects
Clinical studies have shown that CBD oil can cause side effects. The severity and type may vary from person to person.
Common symptoms include:
- Changes in appetite
- Mood changes
- Dry mouth
CBD oil may also increase liver enzymes (a marker of liver inflammation). Patients with liver disease should use CBD oil with caution, preferably under the care of a healthcare provider who can regularly check blood liver enzyme levels.
Avoid using CBD oil during pregnancy and breastfeeding. A 2018 study by the American Academy of Pediatrics warned women to avoid marijuana during pregnancy because of the potential risk to the baby's development. 9 Although it is not clear how CBD works, it is known that CBD can cross the placental barrier.
If you are considering using CBD oil to treat a health condition, be sure to talk to your healthcare provider to make sure it is the right choice for you.
CBD oil can interact with certain medications, including some used to treat epilepsy. CBD inhibits an enzyme called cytochrome P450 (CYP450), which metabolizes certain drugs. By interfering with CYP450, CBD may increase the toxicity of these drugs or reduce their effectiveness.
Potential drug interactions with CBD include:
antiarrhythmic drugs such as quinidine
- Anticonvulsants, such as Tegretol (carbamazepine) and Trileptal (oxcarbazepine)
- Antifungal drugs such as Nizoral (ketoconazole) and Vfend (voriconazole)
- Antipsychotic drugs, such as Orap (pimozide)
- Atypical antidepressants, such as Remeron (mirtazapine)
- Benzodiazepine sedatives, such as Klonopin (clonazepam) and Halcion (triazolam)
- Immunosuppressive drugs, such as Sandimmune (cyclosporine)
- Macrolide antibiotics, such as clarithromycin and telithromycin
- Migraine medications, such as Ergomar (ergotamine)
- Opioid pain relievers, such as Duragesic (fentanyl) and alfentanil
- Rifampicin-based drugs used to treat tuberculosis
Many of these interactions are minor and do not require adjustments to the treatment. Others may require medication replacement or dose separation for several hours. To avoid interactions, tell your healthcare provider and pharmacist of all prescription, over-the-counter, herbal, or recreational medicines you are taking.
Dosage and preparation
There are no guidelines for proper use of CBD oil. CBD oil is usually administered sublingually. Most oils are sold in 30 milliliter (mL) bottles with dropper caps.
There is no known "correct" dose of CBD oil. Depending on personal needs and the content of the treatment, the daily dose may be between 5 and 25 mg.
The tricky part is calculating the exact amount of CBD per milliliter of oil. Some tinctures have a concentration of 1,500 mg per 30 ml, while other tinctures have a concentration of 3,000 mg (or more) per ml. To use CBD oil, put one or more drops under your tongue and keep the dose for 30 to 60 seconds without swallowing. Capsules and gummies are easier to administer, although they tend to be more expensive. CBD sublingual spray is also available.
What to look for
CBD oil comes in the form of full-spectrum oil or contains CBD isolate. Unlike isolates that only contain CBD, full-spectrum oil contains a variety of compounds naturally found in the hemp plant, including proteins, flavonoids, terpenes, and chlorophyll. Alternative practitioners believe that these compounds provide more substantial health benefits, although there is no clear evidence for this.
Keep in mind that because CBD oil is largely unregulated, there is no guarantee that the product is safe or effective.
According to a 2017 study in the Journal of the American Medical Association, only 30.95% of CBD products sold online were correctly labeled. Most of them contain less CBD than advertised, and 21.43% contain a lot of THC. 10
Here are some tips to help you find the best CBD oil:
- It may be safer to buy domestically produced CBD oil from the United States .
- Go organic. Organic brands certified by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) are unlikely to expose you to pesticides and other harmful chemicals.
- Read the product label. Even if you choose a full-spectrum oil, don't assume that every ingredient on the product label is natural. There may be preservatives, flavorings, or diluents that you don't need or need. If you do not recognize an ingredient, please ask the dispenser what it is or check it online.