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什麼食物能夠降低膽固醇?

1. Beans

Including beans, peas and lentils. Beans contain a lot of fiber, minerals and protein. Replacing some refined grains and processed meats in the diet with beans can reduce the risk of heart disease.

Studies have shown that eating 1/2 cup (100 grams) of legumes a day can effectively reduce "bad" LDL cholesterol by an average of 6.6 mg/dl compared with not eating legumes .

2. Avocado

They are a rich source of "monounsaturated fats" and fiber-two nutrients can help reduce "bad" LDL and increase "good" HDL cholesterol . Clinical studies support the role of avocado in lowering cholesterol.

Studies have found that obese adults who eat avocados daily have lower LDL cholesterol levels than those who do not eat avocados .

3. Nuts-especially almonds and walnuts

Nuts are another nutritious food.

They are high in monounsaturated fat. Walnuts are also rich in omega-3 fatty acids in plants, which are a type of polyunsaturated fat related to heart health .

Almonds and other nuts are particularly rich in L-arginine, which is an amino acid that helps the body produce nitric oxide. In turn, this helps regulate blood pressure .

In addition, nuts also provide plant sterols. These plant compounds are structurally similar to cholesterol and help lower cholesterol by preventing its absorption in the intestine.

Calcium, magnesium and potassium are also present in nuts, which may lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of heart disease.

In an analysis of 25 studies, eating 2 to 3 servings of nuts per day reduced "bad" LDL cholesterol by an average of 10.2 mg/dl .

Daily consumption of nuts can reduce the risk of fatal and non-fatal heart disease by 28% .

4. Fatty fish

Fatty fish such as salmon and mackerel are excellent sources of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3s enhance heart health by increasing "good" HDL cholesterol and reducing inflammation and stroke risk.

In a large 25-year study of adults, those who ate the most non-fried fish were the least likely to develop metabolic syndrome. Symptoms of metabolic syndrome include high blood pressure and low "good" HDL levels .

In another large study of the elderly, people who ate tuna or other grilled or grilled fish at least once a week had a 27% lower risk of stroke .

Remember, the healthiest cooking method is steaming or stewing. In fact, fried fish may increase your risk of heart disease and stroke . Fish is a major part of the Mediterranean diet and has been extensively studied because of its benefits for heart health . The benefits may also come from certain peptides in fish protein .

5. Whole grains-especially oats and barley

Extensive research has linked whole grains to reducing the risk of heart disease.

In fact, a review of 45 studies linked eating three servings of whole grains a day to a 20% reduction in the risk of heart disease and stroke. When people eat more servings of grains (up to seven servings) a day, the benefits will be greater .

Whole grains keep all parts of the grain intact, thereby providing grains with more vitamins, minerals, plant compounds and fiber than refined grains.

Although all whole grains can promote heart health, there are two types of grains that need special attention:

  • Oats: Contains β-glucan, a soluble fiber that can help lower cholesterol. Eating oatmeal can reduce total cholesterol by 5% and "bad" LDL cholesterol by 7% .
  • Barley: It is also rich in β-glucan, which can help reduce "bad" LDL cholesterol .
Summary Whole wheat grains can reduce the risk of heart disease. Oats and barley provide beta-glucan, a soluble fiber that is very effective in lowering "bad" LDL cholesterol.

6. Fruits and berries

For many reasons, fruit is an excellent supplement to a heart-healthy diet.

Many types of fruits are rich in soluble fiber , which helps lower cholesterol levels .

It does this by encouraging your body to remove cholesterol and preventing the liver from producing this compound.

A soluble fiber called pectin can lower cholesterol by as much as 10%. It is found in fruits including apples, grapes, citrus fruits and strawberries .

Fruits also contain biologically active compounds that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and help prevent heart disease and other chronic diseases.

Consuming berries and grapes, these plant compounds are particularly rich and can help increase "good" HDL and lower "bad" LDL cholesterol .

7. Dark chocolate and cocoa

Cocoa powder is the main ingredient in dark chocolate.

This may seem too true, but studies have confirmed the claim that dark chocolate and cocoa can lower "bad" LDL cholesterol .

In one study, healthy adults drank cocoa drinks twice a month. Their "bad" LDL cholesterol was reduced by 0.17 mmol/l (6.5 mg/dl). Their blood pressure has also dropped, and their "good" HDL cholesterol has increased .

Cocoa and dark chocolate also seem to protect the "bad" LDL cholesterol in the blood from oxidation, which is the main cause of heart disease .

However, chocolate is usually high in sugar, which can have a negative impact on heart health.

Therefore, you should use cocoa alone or choose dark chocolate with a cocoa content of 75-85% or higher.

8.Garlic

Garlic has been used as a cooking ingredient and medicine for hundreds of years . It contains various powerful plant compounds, including allicin and its main active compounds . Studies have shown that garlic can lower blood pressure in people with high levels and may help lower total cholesterol and "bad" LDL cholesterol-although the latter is less powerful . Since a relatively large amount of garlic is required to achieve this cardioprotective effect , many studies have used supplements for the elderly, which are believed to be more effective than other garlic products .

9. Soy food

Soy is a type of legume that may be good for heart health. Although the research results are inconsistent, the recent research is positive. An analysis of 35 studies linked soy foods to lowering "bad" LDL and total cholesterol and increasing "good" HDL cholesterol . For people with high cholesterol, the effect seems to be the strongest.

10. Vegetables

Vegetables are an important part of a healthy heart-healthy diet.

They are rich in fiber and antioxidants , and low in calories, which is necessary for maintaining a healthy weight. Some vegetables have a particularly high pectin content, which is the same as the pectin content in apples and oranges, which can lower cholesterol . Vegetables rich in pectin include okra, eggplant, carrots and potatoes. Vegetables also provide a variety of plant compounds, which have many health benefits, including the prevention of heart disease.

11. Tea

Tea contains a variety of plant compounds that can improve your heart health. Although green tea has received a lot of attention, black tea and white tea have similar properties and health effects.

The two main beneficial compounds in tea are:

  • Catechins: Help activate nitric oxide , which is important for healthy blood pressure. They also inhibit the synthesis and absorption of cholesterol and help prevent blood clots .
  • Quercetin: can improve blood vessel function and reduce inflammation .

Although most studies link tea with lower total LDL cholesterol and "bad" LDL cholesterol, studies have mixed results on the effects of tea on "good" HDL cholesterol and blood pressure .

12.Dark green leafy vegetables

Although all vegetables are good for your heart, dark green vegetables are especially good. Dark green vegetables (such as kale and spinach) contain lutein and other carotenoids, which are associated with a lower risk of heart disease . Carotenoids are used as antioxidants to eliminate harmful free radicals, which can cause arteriosclerosis . Dark leafy greens can also help lower cholesterol levels by binding to bile acids and lowering cholesterol levels in the body . A study showed that lutein can reduce the level of oxidized "bad" LDL cholesterol and help prevent cholesterol from binding to the arterial wall .

13.Extra virgin olive oil

One of the most important foods in the Mediterranean diet that is good for heart health is extra virgin olive oil .

A five-year study provided the elderly with 4 tablespoons (60 ml) of extra virgin olive oil a day on a Mediterranean diet with a risk of heart disease. Compared with those who followed a low-fat diet, the olive oil group had a 30% lower risk of major heart events (such as stroke and heart attack) .

Olive oil is a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids, which can help increase "good" HDL and lower "bad" LDL cholesterol. It is also a source of polyphenols, some of which reduce inflammation that can cause heart disease .

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