辣椒素: 你需要知道的一切

What is capsaicin?

Capsaicin is the main chemical that gives peppers their spiciness. It is most concentrated in the seeds, making them hotter than the pulp. When eaten, capsaicin stimulates pain receptors on the tongue, producing a sensation of heat. Sensitivity to capsaicin varies among individuals and increases with frequent consumption. The spiciness of chili peppers is measured in Scoville Heat Units (SHU), with jalapeños ranging from 2,500–8,000 SHU and habanero ranging from 100,000–350,000 SHU. Capsaicin supplements are derived from chili peppers and are measured in SHU, which typically ranges from 40,000-100,000, but due to encapsulation, the heat cannot be fully felt.

  • Chemical formula C18H27NO3
  • UNII S07O44R1ZM
  • CAS No. 404-86-4
  • IUPAC name (6E)-N-[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-8-methylnon-6-enamide

health benefits

relief the pain

Capsaicin is a known analgesic that has been approved by the FDA as a prescription-grade pain reliever. It has anti-inflammatory properties and desensitizes nerve cells that transmit pain signals. Topical capsaicin is effective for a variety of health conditions, such as lower back pain. Capsaicin patches are used to treat diabetic peripheral neuropathy and provide long-lasting pain relief. In addition, capsaicin can help relieve discomforts such as arthritis, cluster headaches, jaw pain, and psoriasis.

Mechanism

Capsaicin induces local allergy in the skin, leading to loss of nociceptor fiber function, thereby reducing substance P and relieving pain. This alters pain mechanisms by temporarily losing membrane potential, interrupting the transport of neurotrophic factors, and constricting nerve fiber terminals.

Can improve muscle endurance

Research on capsaicin supplementation to improve athletic performance has yielded mixed results. One review found that it did not improve aerobic endurance, but it did enhance muscular endurance. This is due to capsaicin's effect on calcium release in skeletal muscles, which is required for contraction. However, capsaicin supplementation to improve athletic performance is currently not recommended.

blood pressure level

A systematic review found that eating spicy food 6 to 7 days a week was associated with a 14% lower risk of all-cause mortality compared with eating spicy food less than once a week. However, while ingesting hot peppers may lower blood pressure, it may also increase unhealthy LDL cholesterol and lower healthy HDL cholesterol. These findings are based on observational studies and cannot determine cause and effect. Other dietary and lifestyle factors may also contribute to the observed patterns.

weight management

Spicy foods like chili peppers are thought to boost metabolism and aid weight loss. Research shows that the capsaicin in chili peppers can increase calorie burning and reduce appetite. However, research results are conflicting, with some linking high intake of spicy foods to obesity. It's worth noting that there are other more effective weight management habits before relying solely on cayenne pepper.

How to use capsaicin

Capsaicin is found in chili peppers and chili powder and can be taken orally or as a supplement. There are no set dosage guidelines. Pain relief is most effective when applied topically in the form of a cream, gel, lotion or patch, which contains varying concentrations of capsaicin. Nasal sprays containing capsaicin may help relieve allergies and cluster headaches, but more research is needed. It is recommended to consult a healthcare provider before using capsaicin topicals or supplements.

Capsaicin Supplements – Proper Dosage

People often take capsaicin supplements because food sources may not provide enough of this compound. Most supplements contain cayenne pepper, which is high in capsaicin. Typical dosage is 2-6 mg per day, and each capsule usually contains 500 mg of cayenne pepper. Since supplement dosage has not been standardized, it is recommended to start with a low dose to avoid side effects. Additionally, it’s important to purchase capsaicin supplements from reputable sources that have been third-party verified to ensure safety and quality.

Oral absorption

Capsaicin is absorbed orally, with absorption rates ranging from 50% to 90%, depending on the animal. Peak blood concentration is reached within 1 hour. After absorption, capsaicin is slightly metabolized by the epithelial cells of the small intestine. In humans, 26.6 mg of pure capsaicin was detected in plasma 10 minutes after ingestion. The peak plasma concentration was 2.47 ± 0.13 ng/ml, occurring at 47.1 ± 2.0 minutes.

local analgesics

Capsaicin is commonly used as a local analgesic and is available in a variety of cream, liquid, and patch formulations of varying strengths. However, it may also be found in some dietary supplements. Capsaicin is a naturally occurring plant stimulant in chili peppers and is a synthetic pharmaceutical preparation. The most recent FDA-approved capsaicin is Qutenza, an 8% capsaicin patch dermal delivery system indicated for the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with postherpetic neuralgia.

Absorption for external use

Topical capsaicin is readily absorbed through human skin, but when administered topically or transdermally, very little is absorbed into the bloodstream. One study analyzed plasma concentrations of capsaicin in patients using a 179 mg patch, showing a maximum observed value of 17.8 nanograms/ml.

Metabolism and elimination pathways

Capsaicin is metabolized in the liver after oral administration but has little or no metabolism in the intestine. In laboratory tests using human liver microsomes and the S9 fragment, capsaicin is rapidly metabolized into three major metabolites: 16-hydroxycapsaicin, 17-hydroxycapsaicin, and 16,17-hydroxycapsaicin. Vanillin is a minor metabolite. Cytochrome P450 enzymes may play a role in liver metabolism. In human skin studies, capsaicin undergoes slow biotransformation and remains mostly unchanged.

After ingesting 26.6 mg of capsaicin, its half-life is approximately 24.9 ± 5.0 minutes. The half-life of a topically applied 3% capsaicin solution is approximately 24 hours. The elimination half-life of the 179 mg capsaicin patch is 1.64 hours.

Capsaicin is primarily excreted via the kidneys in its raw and glucuronide forms, but is also present in small amounts in feces and urine. In animal studies, less than 10% of the dose was found in feces.

Is capsaicin safe?

Capsaicin found naturally in spicy foods is safe and well tolerated. Capsaicin is also generally safe when used topically in over-the-counter or prescription forms. However, long-term use of high-dose oral capsaicin supplements may pose health risks, including organ damage and high blood pressure. Pregnant and breastfeeding individuals, as well as children, should avoid oral capsaicin supplements. Check with your healthcare provider before taking any new supplements.

Potential drug interactions

The capsaicin in chili peppers is unlikely to interact with medications. However, higher doses of capsaicin supplements may interfere with anticoagulants, diabetes medications, aspirin, and bronchodilators. Capsaicin supplements may enhance the effects of anticoagulant medications, possibly increasing the risk of bleeding. When taken with antidiabetic medications, they may also lower blood sugar levels, possibly causing hypoglycemia. Animal studies suggest that large amounts of capsaicin-rich chili peppers may reduce the effectiveness of oral aspirin and inhibit the excretion of medications used to treat asthma, but further research in humans is needed.

Capsaicin side effects

Capsaicin in contact with the eyes can cause severe irritation, conjunctivitis, and tearing.

Capsaicin is a strong irritant to skin and eyes, causing burning and pain if it comes in contact with eyes and skin, and can cause lung tissue to swell. It can also irritate the oral mucosa. Consuming capsaicin in its natural food form can cause side effects such as heartburn, burning throat, nausea, flushing, sweating, runny nose, burping and digestive problems.

It can also irritate the respiratory system, causing lung irritation, coughing, and bronchoconstriction. Other respiratory effects include laryngospasm, swelling of the larynx and lungs, chemical pneumonitis, respiratory arrest, and central nervous system effects.

When used topically, capsaicin-based products are generally well tolerated. Warning signs of adverse effects from topical use include severe burning, itching, coughing, sneezing, and pain or blistering at the application site.

Symptoms of systemic toxicity include disorientation, fear, loss of body movement control, hyperventilation, tachycardia, and pulmonary edema.

The acute oral LD50 and transdermal LD50 in mice are 47.2 mg/kg and >512 mg/kg respectively (MSDS). MSDS shows that capsaicin is mutagenic to bacteria and yeast.

May cause burning sensation

Capsaicin supplements often cause a burning sensation in the digestive tract. They can worsen acid reflux and heartburn symptoms. However, over time, the body becomes accustomed to capsaicin, resulting in less discomfort. Taking the supplement with food can help reduce the burning sensation.

May cause an increase in body temperature

Capsaicin supplements can increase body temperature and cause discomfort because they affect heat-regulating receptors in the body. While it's usually not dangerous and unlikely to cause a fever, some people may be more sensitive to this sensation. Additionally, capsaicin supplements may increase blood pressure, so be sure to talk to your healthcare provider if you take blood pressure medications. To minimize side effects, start with a low dose and gradually increase to the desired level.

where to find

You can easily find natural foods rich in capsaicin in your grocery store, such as chili peppers, paprika, and hot sauce. Capsaicin-based creams, lotions, and nasal sprays are available over the counter or with a prescription to address specific health concerns. Please consult your healthcare provider for guidance.

pharmacodynamics

Capsaicin activates the TRPV1 receptor, a transmembrane receptor-ion channel complex. This complex can be activated by high temperature, low pH and endogenous lipids. When activated, the channels open and allow calcium and sodium ions to enter, causing depolarization. This causes A-delta and C fibers to generate action potentials, producing sensations such as warmth, tingling, and burning. Capsaicin also causes long-term activation of these receptors, resulting in diminished responses to sensory stimulation. It also affects enzyme activity, cell structure and nociceptor function.

What happens to capsaicin in the environment?

Based on its chemical properties, capsaicin should not be very mobile in soil. It is also not expected to turn into vapor. Bacteria in the soil break down capsaicin. Capsaicin is not expected to enter groundwater, but may leach out of the soil in some cases. Half of the capsaicin applied to the soil breaks down within 2 to 8 days.

Most wildlife avoid capsaicin because of its strong smell and taste. However, birds cannot taste capsaicin and are not repelled by it. Capsaicin is toxic to bees and other beneficial insects. Researchers believe that capsaicin and similar compounds protect the seeds inside peppers from fungal attack.

Review

All comments are moderated before being published

HealthyPIG Magazine

View all
銀杏:從古樹到現代補充品 - 探索葉子、功效和用途

銀杏:從古樹到現代補充品 - 探索葉子、功效和用途

什麼是銀杏? 銀杏 (Ginkgo biloba) 是一種獨特而古老的樹種,是銀杏目中唯一倖存的成員,其歷史可以追溯到 2 億多年前。 獨特的扇形銀杏葉原產於中國、日本和韓國,廣泛用於生產膳食補充劑和萃取物。 它們含有高水平的抗氧化劑,如類黃酮和萜類化合物,據稱具有改善認知功能、改善循環、抗發...
什麼是左旋谷氨酰胺? 好處和副作用

什麼是左旋谷氨酰胺? 好處和副作用

什麼是L-谷氨酰胺? 左旋谷氨酰胺 (L-麩醯胺酸) (L-Glutamine) 是蛋白質合成中的關鍵胺基酸。 它是體液中最豐富的氨基酸。 生物活性形式是 L-麩醯胺酸,而 D-麩醯胺酸較不重要。 它被認為是有條件必需的,這意味著在壓力或疾病期間可能需要從飲食中補充額外的量。 L-麩醯胺酸的來...
什麼是MCT油? 你需要知道的一切

什麼是MCT油? 你需要知道的一切

MCT 油 (MCT oil) 是一種由中鏈三酸甘油酯製成的膳食補充劑,中鏈三酸甘油酯是一種較小且易於消化的飽和脂肪酸。 它是通過稱為分餾的過程從椰子油或棕櫚仁油中提取的。 MCT油含有己酸、辛酸和癸酸。 與長鏈脂肪不同,MCT 可以被肝臟快速吸收和代謝,為大腦提供即時能量或酮作為替代燃料來源...
如何選擇除濕機?

如何選擇除濕機?

以下是根據您的需求選擇合適的除濕機的一些關鍵提示: 確定所需的尺寸和容量 測量您想要除濕的空間的平方英尺。 較大的空間需要更高容量的除濕機。 評估濕度水平 - 與中等潮濕的房間(每天 8-12 品脫)相比,非常潮濕的空間(例如地下室)需要更高的容量單位(每天 12-32 品脫)。 考慮與房間...
什麼是低筋麵粉? 可以用什麼代替?

什麼是低筋麵粉? 可以用什麼代替?

低筋麵粉即蛋糕粉 (cake flour),是特細或超細麵粉,在澳洲作為餅乾粉 (biscuit flour) 或糕點粉 (pastry flour) ,是一種由軟質小麥製成的精細研磨麵粉,蛋白質含量較低,通常約 7-9%。 它具有幾個獨特的特性,使其成為烘焙蛋糕的理想選擇: 什麼是蛋糕粉? ...
忌廉有哪些不同種類?

忌廉有哪些不同種類?

忌廉有多種類型,每種都有不同的脂肪含量和烹飪用途: 濃奶油 (heavy cream) 脂肪含量最高,通常約36-40%。 它非常適合製作生奶油以及為醬汁和甜點。 鮮奶油 (Whipping cream) 與濃奶油類似,但脂肪含量略低,約 30-36%。 它用於製作鮮奶油,也可以添加到湯和醬汁...
如何判斷忌廉是否壞了?

如何判斷忌廉是否壞了?

忌廉的保存期限有多長? 根據 FDA 的規定,忌廉 (奶油) 是乳脂含量至少 36% 的奶油。它可以進行巴氏殺菌、超巴氏殺菌和均質化。應存放在華氏40度或以下的冰箱中。若經過超巴氏殺菌並正確處理,未開封時可保存長達 30 天,開封後可保存 7 天。要檢查它是否新鮮或安全,請品嚐它,尋找變質的跡...
什麼是加碘鹽?

什麼是加碘鹽?

什麼是加碘鹽? 碘鹽是用碘強化的食鹽。 碘是人體產生甲狀腺激素所需的重要微量營養素,而甲狀腺激素對於調節新陳代謝和其他重要的身體功能至關重要。缺碘會導致甲狀腺疾病,如甲狀腺腫、甲狀腺功能低下和發育問題,尤其是孕婦和嬰兒。 為了解決這個缺陷,許多國家實施了加碘計劃,在食鹽製造過程中添加少量碘化鉀...
什麼是巴斯克焦香芝士蛋糕? 附有食譜

什麼是巴斯克焦香芝士蛋糕? 附有食譜

巴斯克焦起司蛋糕 (Basque Burnt Cheesecake),是一種獨特美味的甜點,起源於西班牙巴斯克地區。 與通常光滑且奶油狀的傳統芝士蛋糕不同,巴斯克燒焦芝士蛋糕具有焦糖化的、幾乎焦糖狀的外部和奶油狀的蛋奶凍內部。這款起司蛋糕僅由幾種基本成分製成:奶油乳酪、糖、雞蛋、濃奶油和少量麵...