心動過緩 - 你的壽命可能在你的心跳中被預言

Overview

Bradycardia is a slow heart rate. The adult heart typically beats between 60 and 100 times per minute at rest. If you have bradycardia, your heart beats less than 60 times per minute.

Bradycardia can be a serious problem if the heart rate is very slow and the heart cannot pump enough oxygen-rich blood to the body. If this happens, you may feel dizzy, very tired or weak, and short of breath. Sometimes bradycardia causes no symptoms or complications.

A slow heart rate isn't always a problem. For example, a resting heart rate of 40 to 60 beats per minute is common during sleep and in some people, especially healthy young people and trained athletes.

If bradycardia is severe, a pacemaker may be implanted to help the heart maintain a proper heart rate.

symptom

A slower than typical heartbeat (bradycardia) prevents the brain and other organs from getting enough oxygen and may cause the following signs and symptoms:

  • chest pain
  • Confusion or memory problems
  • dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Easily fatigued during exercise
  • fatigue
  • Fainting (fainting) or near fainting
  • Shortness of breath

when to see the doctor

Many things can cause the signs and symptoms of bradycardia. It is important to get timely, accurate diagnosis and appropriate care. If you are concerned about a slow heart rate, talk to your healthcare provider.

reason

Bradycardia may be caused by:

  • Aging-Related Heart Tissue Damage
  • Heart disease or heart attack damage to heart tissue
  • Heart disease present at birth (congenital heart defect)
  • Inflammation of heart tissue (myocarditis)
  • heart surgery complications
  • Low thyroid function (hypothyroidism)
  • A chemical imbalance in the blood, such as potassium or calcium
  • obstructive sleep apnea
  • Inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatic fever or lupus
  • Certain medications, including sedatives, opioids, and drugs used to treat cardiac arrhythmias, high blood pressure, and certain mental health disorders

To better understand the causes of bradycardia, it may be helpful to understand how the heart normally beats.

A typical heart has four chambers—two upper chambers (atria) and two lower chambers (ventricles). Within the upper right chamber of the heart (right atrium) is a group of cells called the sinoatrial node. The sinoatrial node is the heart's natural pacemaker. It generates the signal that initiates each heartbeat.

When these signals are slowed or blocked, bradycardia occurs.

sinus node problems

Bradycardia usually begins in an area of ​​the heart called the sinoatrial node. In some people, sinus node problems can cause alternating slow and fast heart rates (bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome).

Heart block (AV block)

Bradycardia can also occur if the heart's electrical signals don't move correctly from the upper chambers (atria) to the lower chambers (ventricles). If this occurs, the condition is called heart block or atrioventricular block.

Heart blocks are divided into three broad categories.

  • First degree heart block. In its mildest form, all electrical signals from the atria reach the ventricles, but the signals are slowed down. First-degree heart block rarely causes symptoms and usually does not require treatment if there are no other problems with the electrical signals.
  • Second-degree heart block. Not all electrical signals reach the ventricles. Some beats drop, causing the heart rhythm to become slower and sometimes irregular.
  • Third degree (complete) heart block. None of the electrical signals from the atria reach the ventricles. When this happens, the ventricles usually beat on their own, but very slowly.

risk factors

Bradycardia is often associated with damage to heart tissue caused by some type of heart disease. Any factor that increases the risk of heart problems increases the risk of bradycardia. Risk factors for heart disease include:

  • older
  • hypertension
  • smokes
  • Use heavy alcohol
  • drug
  • stress and anxiety

Healthy lifestyle changes or medications may help reduce your risk of heart disease.

complication

Possible complications of bradycardia include:

  • Frequent fainting
  • The heart cannot pump enough blood (heart failure)
  • cardiac arrest or sudden death

prevention

Bradycardia can be caused by certain medications, especially when taken in high doses, so it is important to take all medications as directed. Although bradycardia usually cannot be prevented, health care providers recommend strategies to reduce the risk of heart disease. Take these heart-healthy steps:

  • Exercise regularly. Your healthcare provider may be able to recommend the amount and type of exercise that is best for you.
  • Eat a healthy diet. Choose a healthy, low-fat, low-salt, low-sugar diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight increases your risk of heart disease.
  • Control blood pressure and cholesterol. Make lifestyle changes and take prescribed medications to control high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol.
  • do not smoke. If you need help quitting smoking, talk with your health care provider about strategies or plans for help.
  • If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, this means up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men. If you have trouble controlling your drinking, talk to your health care provider about an alcohol withdrawal plan and managing other alcohol-related behaviors.
  • Manage stress. Strong emotions may affect your heart rate. Some ways to relieve stress are to exercise regularly, join a support group and try relaxation techniques such as yoga.
  • Go to the scheduled inspection. Get regular physical exams and report signs or symptoms to your health care provider.

Monitor and treat existing heart disease

If you already have heart disease, there are steps you can take to reduce your risk of bradycardia or other arrhythmias:

  • Follow the plan. Make sure you understand your treatment plan. Take all medications as prescribed.
  • Report changes immediately. Tell your health care provider right away if your symptoms change or worsen or if you develop new symptoms.

Your lifespan may be predicted in the beat of your heart

That's the suggestion of a new study, which found that older Swedish men with a resting heart rate of 75 beats per minute had double the risk of early death, even though that heart rate was within the normal range of 50 to 100 beats per minute.
What's more, each additional beat per minute increases a person's overall risk of early death by 3% and their risk of heart disease by 2%.
Based on these results, doctors may want to keep a close eye on a person's resting heart rate. A progressively higher heart rate could mean trouble for your heart health.

Thinking of resting heart rate as an independent heart health risk factor "is a bit of a stretch.
Conversely, an elevated heart rate may be a red flag for other established heart risk factors, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, smoking, and a family history of heart disease. If the heart rate is higher, it may direct you to be more alert to those people.

The findings showed that a resting heart rate of 75 or higher in 1993 was associated with twice the risk of death or heart disease in subsequent years, compared with a resting heart rate of 55 or lower.

The report, published online in the journal Open Heart, found that a stable resting heart rate between the ages of 50 and 60 was associated with a 44% lower risk of heart disease between the ages of 60 and 70.

The researchers noted that because this was an observational study, a true cause-and-effect relationship cannot be established. That is, resting heart rate may be an indicator of other cardiac risk factors.
When your heart begins to fail, your heart rate will definitely rise. Too slow is not good either - a heart rate of 40 may also indicate that the heart's natural pacemaker may be malfunctioning. The extremes of really slow and really fast, these are our ripe markers for observation and intervention.

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