按年齡的膽固醇水平參考

Adult cholesterol

Your total cholesterol level is the total amount of cholesterol in your blood. it includes:

  • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
  • High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
  • Triglycerides

Low-density lipoprotein is also called "bad" cholesterol because it can block blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease. HDL is considered "good" cholesterol because it helps protect you from heart disease. The higher your HDL, the better.

Total cholesterol also includes triglyceride count. These are another type of fat that can accumulate in the body and are considered the "building blocks" of cholesterol.

High levels of triglycerides and low levels of HDL can increase the risk of heart disease.

The American Heart Association recommends that adults have their cholesterol checked every 4 to 6 years, from the age of 20, that is, when cholesterol levels can start to rise.

As we age, cholesterol levels tend to rise. Men generally face a higher risk of cholesterol than women. However, the risk of women entering menopause will increase.

For those with high cholesterol and other heart risk factors (such as diabetes), more frequent testing is recommended.

Adult cholesterol chart

According to the blood cholesterol management guidelines published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC) in 2018 , these are acceptable, marginal and high measurements for adults.

All values ​​are in mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) and are based on fasting measurements.

Total cholesterolHDL CholesterolLow Density Lipoprotein CholesterolTriglycerides
OKLess than 200 (but the lower the better)Ideally 60 or higher; 40 or higher for men and 50 or higher for women are acceptableLess than 100; if there is coronary artery disease, less than 70Less than 149; ideally <100
Edge to moderate elevation200–239not applicable130–159150–199
High240 or higher60 or higher
160 or higher; 190 considered very high
200 or higher; 500 is considered very high
lownot applicableMale is less than 40, female is less than 50not applicablenot applicable

Cholesterol levels in men and women

Generally speaking, the guidelines are similar for men and women over the age of 20, although they differ in terms of HDL cholesterol, as shown above. Women should aim for higher levels of HDL cholesterol.

Child Cholesterol

Children who are physically active, have a nutritious diet, are not overweight, and have no family history of high cholesterol have a lower risk of high cholesterol.

Current guidelines recommend that all children check their cholesterol between the ages of 9 and 11, and then check again between the ages of 17 and 21.

Children with more risk factors, such as diabetes, obesity, or a family history of high cholesterol, should be checked between the ages of 2 and 8 years and rechecked between the ages of 12 and 16.

Children's Cholesterol Chart

According to JACC, the following are the recommended cholesterol levels for children:

All values ​​are in mg/dL:

Total cholesterolHDL CholesterolLow Density Lipoprotein CholesterolTriglycerides
OK170 or lessGreater than 45Less than 110Children aged 0-9 are less than 75 years old; children aged 10-19 are less than 90 years old
edge170–19940-45110–129Children aged 0-9 are 75-99 years old; children aged 10-19 are 90-129
High200 or highernot applicable130 or higher100 or more children aged 0-9; 130 or more children aged 10-19
lownot applicableLess than 40not applicablenot applicable

Cholesterol treatment options

Your doctor may recommend a high cholesterol treatment plan, including lifestyle changes and potential medications. This will vary based on factors such as other medications you may be taking, your age, gender, and general health.

The following are some of the drugs that are more commonly used to treat high cholesterol:

  • Statins. Statins pass through the liver to produce cholesterol slow to lower LDL cholesterol levels.
  • Bile acid chelator . Bile acid sequestrants are substances used for digestion. These resins can reduce blood cholesterol levels by binding to bile acids and removing them, forcing the body to break down low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to produce bile acids.
  • Cholesterol absorption inhibitor. Cholesterol absorption inhibitors to block the absorption of dietary cholesterol, is sometimes used in combination with statins.
  • Benzidonic acid. Bempedoic acid helps prevent an enzyme in the liver, ATP citrate lyase, from making cholesterol. This drug is usually used in combination with statins to increase the benefits of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, a genetic disease that can lead to early heart disease.
  • PCSK9 inhibitor. PCSK9 inhibitors are also often used in familial hypercholesterolemia, a drug which is injected, can help more absorption and elimination of hepatic LDL cholesterol from the blood.

Medications can also be used to treat factors that cause cholesterol, such as triglycerides. In addition to some of the drugs mentioned above, these drugs can also be used.

Lifestyle changes

One misunderstanding is that people may control bad cholesterol for many years and then decide to take action. By then, the plaques may have accumulated .

The good news is that lifestyle changes are quite effective in helping you lower your cholesterol levels . They are also fairly simple and can be done at any age and within most abilities.

  • If you can, exercise. Physical exercise can help you lose weight and increase your HDL cholesterol. Do 30 to 60 minutes of moderate cardiovascular exercises such as cycling, jogging, swimming, and dancing at least 5 times a week.
  • Eat more fiber. Try adding more fiber to your diet, such as replacing white bread and pasta with whole grains .
  • Eat healthy fats: Healthy fats include olive oil, avocados, and certain nuts . These are fats that will not increase your LDL levels.
  • Limit your cholesterol intake. Reduce the amount of high-saturated fat foods, such as cheese, whole milk, and high-fat red meat.
  • If you smoke, please consider quitting. Smoking lowers HDL cholesterol. Quitting smoking can help you better control your cholesterol levels.
  • Limit your alcohol intake. The American Heart Association recommends moderate drinking, which means that men do not exceed two drinks a day on average and women do not exceed one bottle a day. Drinking too much alcohol can increase the level of triglyceride fat in the blood and cause diseases such as high blood pressure (hypertension) and atrial fibrillation.
  • Reach a healthy weight that fits you. Losing excess weight can help lower cholesterol levels.
  • Check your level. You can go to a doctor or use a home test kit to check your cholesterol level.

When to talk to the doctor

There are almost no obvious symptoms of high cholesterol. Emergency symptoms such as stroke or heart attack may be the only indicator of high cholesterol damage. This means that regular monitoring by doctors is essential.

Most people should go through a blood test every 4 to 6 years to check their cholesterol. If you have any of the following conditions, your doctor may recommend more frequent screenings:

  • History of heart disease
  • Family history of high cholesterol
  • hypertension
  • If you smoke
  • Overweight or obese

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