非索非那定 -用途、副作用等

brand name

It is marketed as a combination drug with pseudoephedrine under brand names including:

  • Almerg
  • Alerfedine D
  • Allegra-D
  • Allergyna-D
  • Allevia
  • Altiva-D
  • Bosnum
  • Dellegra
  • Fexo Plus
  • Fexofed
  • Fixal Plus
  • Ridrinal D
  • Rinolast D
  • Telfast D
  • Treathay

It is marketed as a combination drug with montelukast under brand names including :

  • Fexokast
  • Histakind-M
  • Monten-FX
  • Montolife-FX
  • Montair-FX
  • Novamont-FX

About fexofenadine

Fexofenadine is an antihistamine that helps relieve allergy symptoms.

It is used to treat:

  • hay fever
  • Conjunctivitis (red, itchy eyes)
  • eczema
  • Urticaria (urticaria)
  • Reactions to insect bites and stings
  • some food allergies

Therapeutically, fexofenadine is a selective peripheral H1 blocker. It is classified as a second-generation antihistamine because it is less able to cross the blood-brain barrier and cause sedation than first-generation antihistamines. Fexofenadine is known as a non-drowsiness antihistamine. It is less likely to make you feel drowsy than some other antihistamines.

Fexofenadine comes as tablets.

Fexofenadine was patented in 1979 and entered medical use in 1996. It is included in the World Health Organization's list of essential medicines. Fexofenadine has been manufactured in generic form since 2011. In 2020, it was the 255th most commonly prescribed drug in the United States, with more than 1 million prescriptions filled.

Medical Use - How to Use

Fexofenadine is used to relieve the physical symptoms associated with seasonal allergic rhinitis and to treat chronic urticaria. It does not cure, but rather prevents the progression of allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria and reduces the severity of symptoms associated with these conditions, relieving recurring sneezing, runny nose, itchy eyes or skin, and general fatigue. In a 2018 review, fexofenadine, along with levocetirizine, desloratadine, and cetirizine, was considered safe for the treatment of patients with hereditary long QT syndrome.

key facts

  • You usually take fexofenadine once daily. Children 12 years and younger take twice daily.
  • Fexofenadine is classified as a non-drowsy antihistamine, but some people still find that it makes them feel very sleepy.
  • Common side effects include headache, drowsiness, dry mouth, nausea and dizziness.
  • Do not drink grapefruit, apple, or orange juice while taking fexofenadine. It may make you more likely to have side effects.
  • It is best not to drink alcohol while taking fexofenadine as it can make you feel drowsy.

Who can take fexofenadine and who cannot take fexofenadine

Adults and children over 6 years old can take fexofenadine tablets.

Fexofenadine is not suitable for some people. To make sure it's safe for you, tell your doctor or pharmacist before taking fexofenadine if you:

  • Have ever had an allergic reaction to fexofenadine or any other medicine
  • You have liver or kidney problems
  • have or have had heart problems
  • Have epilepsy or other medical conditions that may cause seizures or convulsions
  • Allergy testing required - taking fexofenadine may affect the results, so you may need to stop taking it a few days before taking the test

How and when to take fexofenadine

If you or your child take fexofenadine, follow your doctor's instructions about how and when to take it.

dose

Fexofenadine is available in different tablet strengths: 30 mg, 120 mg and 180 mg.

How much you take depends on why you are taking it.

Common doses used to treat hay fever are:

  • Adults and children 12 years and older 120 mg once daily
  • Children 6 to 11 years old: 30 mg twice daily, 10 to 12 hours apart

The usual dose for treating urticaria in adults and children over 12 years of age is 180 mg once daily.

Fexofenadine is not recommended for the treatment of urticaria in children under 12 years of age.

how to take

If you take fexofenadine 30 mg tablets, you can take them with food or alone.

If you are taking fexofenadine 120 mg or 180 mg tablets, take them before a meal.

Always take fexofenadine tablets with water. Swallow whole - do not chew.

when to take

Try taking fexofenadine tablets at around the same time each day. Choose a time that is easy to remember.

You may only need to take fexofenadine on the day you develop symptoms, for example if you have been exposed to something you are allergic to (such as animal hair).

Or you may need to take it regularly to prevent symptoms, such as stopping hay fever in spring and summer.

What if I forget to get it?

If you take fexofenadine once daily, take the forgotten dose as soon as you remember, unless it is almost time for your next dose. In this case, skip the missed dose and take the next dose at your usual time.

Do not take 2 doses to make up for a forgotten dose.

If you forget to take your child's twice-daily dose of fexofenadine, you can give your child a refill within 4 hours of the time it is due.

If it is more than 4 hours before you remember, do not take the missed dose. Instead, wait until your next dose and continue as usual.

If you frequently forget your doses, it may be helpful to set an alarm to remind you. You can also ask your pharmacist for suggestions on other ways to help you remember to take your medication.

What if I take too much?

Fexofenadine is generally very safe. Taking more than your usual dose of this drug is unlikely to harm you.

If you take additional doses, you may experience some common side effects. If this happens or you are concerned, contact your doctor.

side effect

Like all medications, fexofenadine can cause side effects, although not everyone will experience side effects.

Common side effects

Common side effects of fexofenadine occur in more than 1 percent of people.

If these side effects bother you or don't go away, talk to your doctor or pharmacist:

  • Feeling sick (nauseous)
  • feeling sleepy
  • Headache
  • dry mouth
  • feeling dizzy

serious side effects

Serious side effects of fexofenadine are rare.

severe allergic reaction

In rare cases, fexofenadine may cause a serious allergic reaction (anaphylaxis).

These are not all side effects of fexofenadine. For a full list, see the leaflet inside your medicine pack.

How to deal with fexofenadine side effects

what to do:

  • Not feeling well – stick to a simple diet and avoid fatty or spicy foods.
  • Feeling sleepy – Try a different non-drowsiness antihistamine. If this doesn't help, talk to your doctor.
  • Headaches – Make sure to rest and drink plenty of fluids. It's best not to drink alcohol. Take a daily pain reliever, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen.
  • Dry mouth – chewing sugarless gum or sucking on sugarless candy
  • Feeling dizzy – Lie down until you no longer feel dizzy, then stand up slowly. Move slowly and carefully. Avoid coffee, cigarettes, alcohol and recreational drugs. If dizziness doesn't get better within a few days, talk to your pharmacist or doctor.

overdose

The safety profile of fexofenadine is very favorable as no cardiovascular or sedative effects are seen even when taken at 10 times the recommended dose. Human studies ranged from a single 800 mg dose to twice daily, monthly doses of 690 mg, with no clinically significant side effects compared to placebo. In tests on mice, no deaths occurred at a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight (110 times the maximum recommended adult dose). In the event of overdose, supportive measures are recommended. Theoretically, an overdose could manifest as dizziness, dry mouth, and/or drowsiness, consistent with the exaggerated common side effects. Hemodialysis does not appear to be an effective method of removing fexofenadine from the blood.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

Fexofenadine and pregnancy

Fexofenadine is generally not recommended if you are pregnant because there is not much information about its use during pregnancy.

As better safety information is available, other antihistamines may be more appropriate.

If you think you need to take fexofenadine during pregnancy, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. They will help you make a decision or may recommend other medicines for you.

Fexofenadine and breastfeeding

You can take fexofenadine while breastfeeding if your doctor or health visitor says your baby is healthy.

Little information is available but suggests that only minimal amounts pass into breast milk. It is unlikely to cause any side effects to your baby.

If you are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed, talk to your doctor or pharmacist as other antihistamines called loratadine and cetirizine may work better while breastfeeding.

If your baby is not feeding as usual, seems unusually sleepy, or seems fussy, or you have any other concerns about your baby, talk to your doctor, pharmacist, health visitor or midwife.

Precautions when using with other drugs

Some medications and fexofenadine may interact with each other and increase the chance of side effects.

Consult your pharmacist or doctor if you are taking the following medications:

  • Ketoconazole, a drug that treats fungal infections
  • Dronedarone, a drug used in people who have cardioversion to control their heart rate
  • Erythromycin, an antibiotic
  • filgotinib or leflunomide, a drug used to treat arthritis
  • letermovir, a drug used in people who have had stem cell transplants
  • pibrentasvir or velpatasvir, a drug that treats hepatitis C infection
  • Rifampicin, an antibiotic
  • Teriflunomide, a drug used to treat multiple sclerosis
  • Indigestion medicines that contain aluminum or magnesium – wait about 2 hours between taking fexofenadine and indigestion medicines
  • drugs to treat cancer
  • Any medicine that makes you drowsy, has a dry mouth, or has difficulty urinating - taking fexofenadine may make these side effects worse

interactive

Concomitant administration of erythromycin or ketoconazole with fexofenadine does increase fexofenadine plasma levels, but this increase does not affect the QT interval. The reason for this effect may be due to transport-related effects, specifically involving p-glycoprotein (p-gp). Erythromycin and ketoconazole are both inhibitors of p-gp, a transporter involved in preventing the intestinal absorption of fexofenadine. Fexofenadine may be better absorbed by the body when p-gp is inhibited, thereby increasing its plasma concentration more than expected.

Fexofenadine should not be taken with apple, orange, or grapefruit juice because they may reduce the absorption of the drug. Therefore, it should be taken with water. Grapefruit juice significantly decreases fexofenadine plasma concentrations.

Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium should not be taken within 15 minutes of taking fexofenadine as they can reduce absorption by nearly 50%. This is not thought to be due to a change in pH (in fact, absorption actually increases at increasingly alkaline pH), but rather due to the presence of charged/polar moieties on fexofenadine. Formation of metal complexes. As noted by Shehnaza et al. (2014), various sites on the molecule are thought to be responsible for this interaction, including the piperidine nitrogen, the carboxylic acid (-COOH) group, and the two hydroxyl (-OH) groups .

Mixing Fexofenadine with Herbal Medicines and Supplements

There is very little information about taking herbal remedies and Fexofendada supplements. There can be problems with taking some herbs and supplements, especially those that cause drowsiness or dry mouth or difficulty urinating.

Review

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