- INS number 104
- E 104
- EINECS No. 305-897-5
- CAS number 80583-08-0
- CI Food Yellow 13
- CI number 47005
- CI Acid Yellow 3
Typical applications of quinoline yellow include beverages, confectionery, meat, bakery, butter fats and oils, seafood, snacks, dry blends and seasonings, fruit preparations, convenience foods, fragrances, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
Quinoline yellow is used as a green-yellow food additive in some countries and is designated as E number E104 in Europe. In the European Union and Australia, quinoline yellow is allowed to be used in beverages and foods, such as sauces, decorations and coatings; quinoline yellow is not listed as allowed in Canada and the United States, where it is allowed to be used in medicines and cosmetics. The Codex Alimentarius for a food additive called d&C Yellow 10 does not list it.
Food use specifications
European Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012
Codex GSFA regulations
The Codex Alimentarius Commission has completed the authorization of Quinoline Yellow (INS No. 104) for use in 7 categories of food, including soups and broths, decorations, toppings (non-fruit) and sweet juices, chewing gum, hard candies, soft candies, and nougat Sugar and marzipan, and flavored liquid milk beverages, as described in the General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA). Many other applications of quinoline yellow as a color additive in food and beverages have been proposed and are awaiting authorization after the review and comment process has been completed.
- JECFA: ADI is 0-3 mg/kg body weight (the 73rd report, 2016)
- United States: D&C Yellow No. 10 is a color additive, certified and permanently listed in GMP for general use in medicines (21 CFR 74.1710) and cosmetics (21 CFR 74.2710).
- EU: ADI is 0.5 mg/kg body weight (European Food Safety Agency, 2009); EFSA also established MPL for the use of quinoline yellow in certain foods and beverages in Europe
Quinoline yellow is a synthetic pigment used in foods, beverages, medicines and cosmetics. Although it is not approved for food in the United States, it is allowed for food in other countries (including the European Union, Australia and New Zealand). JECFA re-evaluated quinoline yellow in 2017 and believes that the existing quinoline yellow data provide a sufficient basis for establishing quinoline yellow's ADI. Based on the effect of higher doses on body weight and organ weight, two related long-term studies on rat D&C Yellow No. 10 showed that the minimum NOAEL in the diet is 0.5% (equivalent to 250 mg/kg body weight per day). Using the NOAEL and the uncertainty factor of 100, the committee determined the ADI of quinoline yellow to be 0-3 mg/kg body weight (rounded value). The Committee noted that based on analysis, reports, and/or industry use data, including conservative estimates from EFSA, children’s estimated range of dietary exposure to quinoline yellow is below the upper limit of ADI (0.3-10%). The committee concluded that dietary exposure of quinoline yellow to children and all other age groups does not cause health problems.
Quinoline Yellow WS is not associated with any significant long-term toxicity, has no genetic toxicity or carcinogenicity, and has no evidence of adverse effects on reproduction or development. Generally speaking, food coloring is subject to strict scrutiny due to its impact on health.
Possible causes of ADHD
Since the 1970s and Benjamin Feingold's widely publicized advocacy, the public has been concerned that food coloring may cause children to behave like ADHD. These concerns prompted the US FDA and other food safety agencies to periodically review the scientific literature, and prompted the UK FSA to commission researchers from the University of Southampton to conduct a study to evaluate the effects of six food dye mixtures (lemon yellow, allure red, ponceau) 4R, Quinoline Yellow WS, Sunset Yellow FCF and Carmine (known as "Southampton 6") and sodium benzoate (preservative) are consumed by children in the general population, who consume them in beverages; the study was published in 2007 year. The study found that "there may be a link between the consumption of these artificial colors and the increase in sodium benzoate preservatives and childhood ADHD"; the FSA Advisory Committee that evaluated the study also determined that due to the limitations of the study, the results cannot be extrapolated to the general population, and Further testing is recommended."
European regulatory agencies have put more emphasis on the precautionary principle, requiring labelling and temporarily reducing the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of food colors; the British FSA called on food manufacturers to voluntarily withdraw these colors. However, in 2009 EFSA re-evaluated the data at hand and determined that “existing scientific evidence does not confirm the link between color additives and behavioral effects.” On the basis of other evidence, EFSA will also increase the acceptable daily intake (ADI) Reduced from 10 to 0.5 mg/kg.
After the Southampton study was published, the US FDA did not make any changes, but in 2008 after the Center for Science in the Public Interest submitted a citizen petition requesting the FDA to ban several food additives, the FDA began to review the existing The evidence has not changed.
There is no evidence to support the broad claim that food coloring can cause food intolerance and ADHD-like behavior in children. Certain food coloring may trigger people with genetic predispositions, but the evidence is insufficient.