Sunset Yellow FCF (also known as Orange S, or CI 15985) is a petroleum-derived orange azo dye that has a pH-related maximum absorption at about 480 nm at pH 1, and 443 nm at pH 13. The peak is at 500 nm. When added to food sold in the United States, it is called FD&C Yellow 6; when sold in Europe, it is represented by the E number E110.
FD&C Yellow No. 6
INS No. 110
E編碼 E 110
EINECS No. 220-491-7
CAS No. 2783-94-0
CI Food Yellow 3
CI No. 15985
Sunset Yellow FCF is a synthetic yellow dye that can be reddish orange in applications. Sunset yellow is mainly the disodium salt of 6-hydroxy-5-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid. The trisodium salt of 3-hydroxy-4[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenesulfonic acid can be added in small amounts.
Sunset yellow appears orange when used in food, medicine, and cosmetics. Sunset yellow is used to color many different types of food, including cereals, snack foods, baked goods, gelatin, beverages, dessert powders, biscuits and sauces.
Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012
Codex GSFA regulations
The concentration of sunset yellow FCF added to food and beverages is up to the maximum allowable level (MPL) established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and published in the General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA).
JECFA recently evaluated the sunset yellow FCF in 2012. At that time, it pointed out that there were five long-term repeated-dose feeding studies at that time. The dietary concentration of sunset yellow FCF was equivalent to a dose of 7500 mg/kg body weight per day, which was as high as that of rats per day. 2500 mg/kg body weight. One of the long-term studies in rats (including exposure in the womb) had no significant adverse effect level (NOAEL) for weight reduction of pups at 375 mg/kg body weight per day. Based on this NOAEL and the usual 100-fold uncertainty, the committee determined an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 0-4 mg/kg body weight. The previous daily intake of 0-2.5 mg/kg body weight was cancelled. The committee concluded that exposure of children to sunset yellow FCF from their diet does not cause health problems.
Since the 1970s and Benjamin Feingold's widely publicized advocacy, the public has been concerned that food coloring may cause children to behave like ADHD. These concerns prompted the FDA and other food safety agencies to review scientific literature on a regular basis, and prompted the FSA to commission a study by researchers at the University of Southampton to study the effects of "Southampton 6" and sodium benzoate mixture (preservatives) in beverages Children in the general population who eat; the study was published in 2007. The study found that children “may have a connection between the consumption of these artificial colors and sodium benzoate preservatives and ADHD”; the FSA advisory committee that evaluated the study also determined that due to the limitations of the study, the results cannot be extrapolated to the general population and recommended further test".