維他命D有哪些健康益處

Vitamin D benefits

Under sunlight, the human body produces vitamin D.
Under sunlight, the human body produces vitamin D.

Vitamin D has many functions in the body. It helps:

  • Promote healthy bones and teeth
  • Support immune, brain and nervous system health
  • Regulate insulin levels and support diabetes management
  • Support lung function and cardiovascular health
  • Affect the expression of genes involved in the development of cancer

Read on to understand these roles in more detail:

1. Healthy bones

Vitamin D play An important roleRegulates calcium and maintains phosphorus levels in the blood. These factors are essential for maintaining healthy bones.

People need vitamin D to stimulate the intestines and absorb calcium, and to recycle the calcium that the kidneys would otherwise excrete.

Vitamin D deficiency in children can cause rickets , which can cause severe bowed legs due to softening of the bones.

Similarly, in adults, vitamin D deficiency Manifested as osteomalacia, Or soften the bones. Osteomalacia causes poor bone density and muscle weakness.

Vitamin D deficiency can also manifest as osteoporosis, and more than 53 million people in the United States seek treatment or are at higher risk for this.

2. Reduce the risk of flu

A sort of 2018 in reviewExisting research shows that some studies have found that vitamin D has a protective effect on influenza viruses.

However, the authors also studied other studies in which vitamin D did not have this effect on flu and flu risk.

Therefore, further research is necessary to confirm the protective effect of vitamin D on influenza.

3. Healthy babies

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with high blood pressure in children . A 2018 study found a possible connection between low vitamin D levels and stiffness in children's arterial walls.

The American Academy of Allergic Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) has shown that there is evidence that there is a link between low vitamin D exposure and an increased risk of allergic sensitization .

An example of this is that children living near the equator have a lower rate of hospital admissions due to allergies and fewer prescriptions for epinephrine auto-injectors. They are also unlikely to be allergic to peanuts.

AAAAI also emphasized Australia's research on egg intake. Eggs are a common early source of vitamin D. Children who start to eat eggs after 6 months are more likely to develop food allergies than children 4-6 months old .

In addition, vitamin D can enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. This benefit makes it potentially usefulSupportive therapyFor people with steroid-resistant asthma .

4. Healthy pregnancy

A sort of 2019 in reviewThis indicates that pregnant women who are deficient in vitamin D may have a greater risk of pre-eclampsia and preterm birth.

Doctors also linked poor vitamin D status to gestational diabetes and bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women .

It should also be noted that in A 2013 studyResearchers have linked high vitamin D levels during pregnancy to an increased risk of food allergies in babies during the first two years of life.

For more in-depth resources on vitamins, minerals and supplements, please visit our dedicated center .

Although the body can produce vitamin D, there are many reasons for vitamin D deficiency.

reason

Skin type: For example, darker skin and sunscreen reduce the body's ability to absorb ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) rays from the sun. The absorption of sunlight is essential for the skin to produce vitamin D.

Sunscreen: A sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 30 can reduce the body's ability to synthesize vitamins in the following waysabove 95. Covering the skin with clothes will also inhibit the production of vitamin D.

Geographical location: People who live in northern latitudes or highly polluted areas, work night shifts, or stay at home should get vitamin D from food as much as possible.

Breastfeeding: Infants who are exclusively breastfed need vitamin D supplementation, especially if they have dark skin or little sun exposure. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all breastfed babies accept400 international units (IU) Take vitamin D by mouth every day.

Although people can take vitamin D supplements, it is best to obtain any vitamins or minerals from natural sources as much as possible.

symptom

Symptoms of vitamin D deficiency may include:

  • Often get sick or get infected
  • fatigue
  • Bone pain and back pain
  • upset
  • Impaired wound healing
  • Hair loss
  • Muscle pain

If the vitamin D deficiency persists for a long time, May cause complications, like:

  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Autoimmune problems
  • Nervous system disease
  • Infect
  • Pregnancy complications
  • Certain cancers, especially breast, prostate, and colon cancers.

Getting plenty of sunlight is the best way to help the body produce enough vitamin D. The rich food sources of vitamin D include:

  • Fatty fish, such as salmon, mackerel, and tuna
  • yolk
  • cheese
  • Beef liver
  • mushroom
  • Fortified milk
  • Fortified cereals and juices

People can measure vitamin D intake in micrograms (mcg) or international units (IU). One microgram of vitamin D is equal to 40 IU.

this Recommended daily intake Vitamin D is as follows:

  • Infants aged 0-12 months: 400 IU (10 micrograms).
  • Children 1-18 years old: 600 IU (15 micrograms).
  • Adults under 70: 600 IU (15 micrograms).
  • Adults over 70 years of age: 800 IU (20 micrograms).
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding women: 600 IU (15 micrograms).

Most people can produce enough vitamin D for 5-10 minutes of reasonable sun exposure on bare skin 2-3 times a week. However, vitamin D breaks down very quickly, which means that storage capacity may be reduced, especially in winter.

The upper limit of vitamin D recommended by healthcare professionals is 4,000 IU per dayFor an adult. However, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) stated that vitamin D intake of less than 10,000 IU per day is unlikely to be toxic.

Excessive intake of vitamin D can lead to excessive calcification of bones and hardening of blood vessels, kidneys, lungs and heart tissues.

The most common symptoms of overdose of vitamin D include headache and nausea. However, too much vitamin D can also cause the following conditions:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Dry mouth
  • Metallic
  • Vomit
  • constipate
  • diarrhea

Excessive vitamin D is usually caused by taking too many supplements. It is best to obtain vitamin D from natural sources.

If someone is taking a supplement, they should choose their brand carefully because the FDA does not monitor the safety or purity of the supplement.

The overall diet and eating pattern are the most important for disease prevention and physical health. It is best to eat a diet that contains multiple nutrients instead of focusing on one nutrient, because this is the key to staying healthy.

Ask:

To ensure that people get enough vitamin D, is exposure to the sun worth the risk of skin cancer?

A:

Exposure to the sun several times a week for 10-15 minutes may seem harmless, but such exposure will have an impact on your life.

Exposure to the sun for 60 seconds of UVA increases the risk of melanoma. You are likely to get enough vitamin D through food, and increasing your vitamin D intake through sun exposure is not worth the increased risk.

If you don't get enough, then look for supplements. Experts also suggest that if you are going out, apply sunscreen every 2 hours and use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with SPF 15 or higher.

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