E102 檸檬黃


Synthesis of azo dyes. Background on azo dyes.
Function and characteristics: yellow food coloring. Easily soluble in water.

Products containing lemon yellow:


Many foods contain different proportions of lemon yellow, depending on the manufacturer or the person preparing the food. In food, lemon yellow is usually labeled as "color", "lemon yellow" or "E102", depending on the jurisdiction and applicable labeling laws (see regulations below).

Products containing lemon yellow generally include processed commercial foods that have an artificial yellow or green color, or that consumers want to look brown or cream. It is often used to imitate the bright yellow coloration of lemon filling in baked goods. The following is a list of foods that may contain lemon yellow .

  • Desserts and candies: ice cream, popsicles and popsicles, candies and hard candies (such as gummy, peeping marshmallow snacks, etc.), marshmallows, instant pudding and gelatin (such as jelly), cake mixes, pastries (such as Pillsbury pastries), cream Jelly powder, marzipan, biscuits and biscuits.
  • Beverages: soft drinks (such as Mountain Dew), energy and sports drinks, mixed powders (such as Kool-Aid), fruit liqueurs, and flavored/mixed alcoholic beverages.
  • Snacks: seasoned corn flakes (such as Doritos, corn flakes, etc.), chewing gum, popcorn (microwave popcorn and movie popcorn), potato chips.
  • Condiments and spreads: jams, jellies (including mint jelly), jams, mustard, horseradish, kimchi (and other products containing kimchi, such as tartar sauce and dill pickle dip) and processed sauces.
  • Other processed foods: cereals (such as corn flakes, oatmeal, etc.), instant or "cubic" soups), rice (such as paella, risotto, etc.), noodles (such as certain varieties of Kraft dinner), fruit purees and Salad of pickled peppers and bright green seaweed.

Personal care and cosmetic products

Many personal care and cosmetic products may contain lemon yellow, usually labeled CI 19140 or FD&C Yellow 5, including:

  • Liquid and soap, green hand sanitizer, moisturizer and lotion, mouthwash, perfume, toothpaste, shampoo, conditioner and other hair care products.
  • Cosmetics, such as eye shadow, blush, powder and foundation, lipstick, etc.-even those that are mainly pink or purple. (Usually cosmetic manufacturers use a label for all the shades in the product line, and put the phrase "may contain" before all the colors used in the series, not necessarily a specific shade.)
  • Nail polish, nail polish remover, temporary tattoos, and tanning lotion.


Various types of medicines include lemon yellow, which makes liquids, capsules, pills, lotions or gels yellow, orange, or green, mainly for easy identification. [6] The types of medicines that may contain lemon yellow include vitamins, antacids, cold medicines (including cough suppressants and throat lozenges), lotions, and prescription drugs.

Most (if not all) drug data sheets need to include a list of all ingredients, including lemon yellow. Some include lemon yellow in the allergen alert section.

The Canadian Compendium of Medicines and Professionals (CPS) is a prescription reference book for health professionals that mentions tartrazine as a potential allergen for every medicine containing tartrazine.

other products

Other products, such as household cleaning products, paper plates, pet food, crayons, writing instrument ink, stamp dyes, top coats, envelope glue, and deodorants, may also contain lemon yellow.

Daily intake:

Up to 7.5 mg/kg body weight.

side effect:

Lemon yellow is an azo dye. Except for people who are intolerant to salicylate (aspirin, berries, fruits), pure lemon yellow has no side effects; in this case, lemon yellow can also cause intolerance symptoms. When combined with benzoate (E210-215), tartrazine is associated with most cases of ADHD syndrome (hyperactivity disorder) in children. Asthma patients may also experience symptoms after consuming lemon yellow because it is a known histamine releasing agent.

Dietary restrictions:

None; E102 can be consumed by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians.

Potential health effects on humans


Of all azo dyes, tartrazine seems to cause the most severe allergic and intolerant reactions, especially in asthmatics and aspirin intolerant patients. Symptoms of tartrazine sensitivity can occur through ingestion or skin contact with substances containing tartrazine. Symptoms appear after a period of time ranging from a few minutes to 14 hours.

It is estimated that the prevalence of tartrazine intolerance is approximately 360,000 US citizens, which is less than 0.12% of the total population. According to the FDA, lemon yellow causes urticaria in less than 1 in 10,000 people, or 0.01%.

It is not clear how many people are sensitive or intolerant to tartrazine, but the University of Guelph estimates that there are 1 to 10 people per 10,000 people (0.01% to 0.1% of the population). There is a lot of controversy as to whether tartrazine has an adverse effect on individuals without obvious intolerance.

Complete avoidance is the most common way to deal with tartrazine sensitivity, but in a study of people who are sensitive to both aspirin and tartrazine, progress has been made in reducing people's sensitivity to tartrazine.


A 2015 study found that yellow 5 causes damage to white blood cells, which may make the development of diseases such as tumors and cancer more likely.



Lemon yellow is listed as a food coloring allowed in Canada. Most prepackaged foods require all ingredients to be listed, including all food additives, such as colorings; however, section B.01.010 (3)(b) of the regulations stipulates that food manufacturers can choose to pass the generic name or simply as the "color" To declare the added color.

In February 2010, Health Canada consulted the public and manufacturers on their plan to change labeling requirements. Health Canada believes that it may be prudent to require specific colors on food labels so that consumers can make more informed choices. The results of the consultation support increased transparency. Some interviewees proposed to ban the use of synthetic food coloring, but Health Canada found that the existing scientific literature did not prove that synthetic food coloring is unsafe for the general population; instead, they are considering adopting more transparent labels to allow those who are sensitive to food colors People can make wise choices. The proposed regulatory changes will be developed and published in Part I of the Consultation Canadian Government Gazette, the official newsletter of the Canadian government.


The United States requires the declaration of the presence of tartrazine in food and drugs (21 CFR 74.1705 (revised in April 2013), 21 CFR 201.20), and also requires the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to pre-approve color batches. As part of these regulations, the FDA requires the precautions section of prescription drug labels to include a warning statement, “This product contains FD&C Yellow No. 5 (Tartrine Yellow), which may cause allergic reactions (including bronchial asthma) in certain susceptible people. Although in The overall incidence of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) sensitivity in the general population is low, but it is also common in patients allergic to aspirin.
If it is found to contain undeclared tartrazine, declared but not tested by the FDA or posted With labels other than FD&C Yellow 5 or Yellow 5, the FDA regularly confiscates these products. These confiscated products usually include noodles.

European Union

The European Food Safety Agency allows the use of lemon yellow in processed cheese, canned or bottled fruits or vegetables, processed fish or fish products, wine and alcohol-based beverages.
European regulatory agencies have put more emphasis on the precautionary principle, requiring labelling and temporarily reducing the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of food colorings; the British FSA has called on food manufacturers to voluntarily withdraw these colorings. However, in 2009, EFSA reassessed the data at hand and determined that "the existing scientific evidence does not confirm a link between color additives and behavioral effects."
Lemon yellow is one of the six artificial colors required by the European Union to declare that products containing lemon yellow may have an adverse effect on children's activities and attention.


In response to concerns about the safety of certain food additives, the British FSA commissioned researchers from the University of Southampton to analyze six food dyes (Lemon Yellow, Allure Red, Ponceau 4R, Quinoline Yellow WS, Sunset Yellow and Carmine). The effect of the mixture (called "Southampton 6") was studied and sodium benzoate (a preservative) was consumed by children in the general population, who consumed it in beverages; the study was published in 2007. The study found that "there may be a link between the intake of these artificial colors and the intake of sodium benzoate preservatives and the increase in children with ADHD"; the FSA Advisory Committee that evaluated the study also determined that the results cannot be extrapolated due to the limitations of the study Go to the general population and recommend further testing.


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