Known as acacia gum, acacia, Senegal gum, Indian gum, etc., it is a natural gum composed of two hardened sap of gum arabic. The term "gum arabic" does not indicate a specific plant source. In a few cases, the so-called "gum arabic" may not even be collected from the genus Acacia, but may come from Combretum, Albizia or some other genera. This glue is commercially harvested from wild trees, mainly in Sudan and the entire Sahel region, from Senegal to Somalia. The name "al-samgh al-'arabi" (al-samgh al-'arabi) was used in the Middle East at least as early as the 9th century. Gum Arabic first entered Europe through Arabian ports, so it retained its name. Gum arabic is a complex mixture of glycoproteins and polysaccharides mainly composed of arabinose and galactose. It is soluble in water and edible. It is mainly used in the food industry and soft drink industry as a stabilizer. The E number is E414 (I414 in the United States).
Gum arabic is a rich source of dietary fiber. In addition to being widely used as a safe thickener, emulsifier and stabilizer in the food and pharmaceutical industries, it also has a wide range of health benefits, which have been passed through many times in vitro and in vivo Research. Gum arabic does not degrade in the stomach, but is fermented into a variety of short-chain fatty acids in the large intestine. It is considered a prebiotic that can promote the growth and proliferation of beneficial intestinal microbiota, so its intake is related to many beneficial health effects. These health benefits include
2- Anti-obesity (Acacia gum reduces body mass index and body fat percentage)
3- Lipid-lowering potential (Acacia gum reduces total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides)
4- Antioxidant activity
5 -Kidney and liver support
6-Play immune function by regulating the release of some inflammatory mediators.
7- Prebiotics improve the intestinal barrier function, prevent colon cancer, and relieve the symptoms of irritable bowel disease.
8- In rats, gum arabic supplements showed a protective effect on the intestines against the adverse effects of the NSAID drug meloxicam.
Gum arabic is used in the food industry as a stabilizer, emulsifier and thickener in sugar coatings, fillings, soft candies, chewing gums and other confectionery, as well as sweeteners and flavoring agents in soft drinks. A solution of sugar and gum arabic in water, gomme syrup, is sometimes used in cocktails to prevent sugar crystals and provide a smooth texture.
Gum arabic is a complex polysaccharide and soluble dietary fiber, which is generally considered safe for human consumption. Some people experience harmless flatulence when taking large doses of 30 grams or more per day. It is not degraded in the intestine, but fermented in the colon under the action of microorganisms; it is a prebiotic . No regulatory or scientific consensus has been reached on its caloric value; an upper limit of 2 kcal/g has been set for rats, but this is not effective for humans. The US Food and Drug Administration originally set a value of 4 kcal/g for food labels, but there is no value for soluble dietary fiber in Europe. A 1998 review concluded that “according to current scientific knowledge, only arbitrary values can be used for regulatory purposes”. In 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration should apply to reduce the rated calorific value of gum arabic to 1.7kcal/g and issued a letter of no objection.